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Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS

Low-voltage electron beam lithography resist processes: top surface imaging and hydrogen silisesquioxane bilayer
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Paper Abstract

A hydrogen silisesquioxane (HSQ) bilayer process and a top surface imaging (TSI) process are investigated for application as low-voltage electron beam resist systems. Namatsu, van Delft, and others have reported printing exceptionally small features using high-voltage electron beam exposure of HSQ at high-exposure doses (~2000 μC/cm2 at 100 kV). The shallow penetration depth of low-voltage electrons results in greatly reduced dose requirements, and smooth, high-resolution images are generated at 1 kV with an exposure dose of less than 60 μC/cm2. HSQ's high silicon content enable it to be used in a bilayer form utilizing reactive ion etching with an oxygen plasma, thus generating high aspect ratio images. TSI has been studied in the past by numerous researchers at low voltages using various TSI schemes. We investigate the use of a chemically amplified TSI resist process based on poly (t-BOC-hydroxystyrene). The effect of base quencher loading in the resist formulation on line edge roughness and resolution is investigated, and is found to have a dramatic influence. High-resolution, high aspect ratio images are printed down to 40 nm, and exhibit only moderate levels of line edge roughness. Furthermore, proximity effects at 1, 2, and 3 kV are examined and compared to simulation.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 July 2004
PDF: 8 pages
J. Micro/Nanolith. 3(3) doi: 10.1117/1.1758268
Published in: Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS Volume 3, Issue 3
Show Author Affiliations
Andrew Thomas Jamieson, Univ. of Texas/Austin (United States)
C. Grant Willson, Univ. of Texas/Austin (United States)
Yautzong E. Hsu, Applied Materials, Inc. (United States)
Alan D. Brodie, BEO Systems (United States)


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