Optical EngineeringGain calculation in erbium-doped LiNbO3 channel waveguides by defining a complex index profile
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An analysis of erbium-doped titanium indiffused LiNbO3 channel waveguides under 1484-nm excitation is presented in terms of a complex refractive index profile under 1484-nm excitation (pump) to obtain modal gain and loss for signal and pump powers, respectively. Closed form analytical expressions for modal fields are used to define the complex index profile. The calculated gain characteristics are compared with available experimental results.