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Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS

Complementary double-exposure technique (CODE): a way to print 80- and 65-nm gate levels using a double-exposure binary mask approach
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Paper Abstract

To follow the accelerating ITRS roadmap, microprocessor and DRAM manufacturers are on their way to introduce the alternating phase shift mask (APSM) to be able to print the gate level on sub-130-nm devices. This is done at very high mask costs, long cycle times, and poor guarantees to get defect-free masks. Nakao et al. have proposed a new resolution enhancement technique (RET). They have shown that sub-0.1-μm features could be printed with good process latitudes using a double binary mask printing technique. This solution is very interesting, but is applicable to isolated structures only. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an extension of this technique called complementary double exposure (CODE). It combines Nakao's technique and the use of assist features that are removed during a second subsequent exposure. This new method enables us to print isolated as well as dense features on advanced devices using two binary masks. We describe all the steps required to develop the CODE application. The layout rules generation and the impact of the second mask on the process latitude have been studied. Experimental verification has been done using 193-nm 0.63 and 0.75 numerical aperture (NA) scanners. The improvement brought by quadrupole or annular illuminations combined with CODE has also been evaluated. Finally, the results of the CODE technique, applied to a portion of a real circuit using all the developed rules, are shown.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 April 2004
PDF: 11 pages
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 3(2) doi: 10.1117/1.1683359
Published in: Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS Volume 3, Issue 2
Show Author Affiliations
Serdar Manakli, STMicroelectronics (France)
Yorick Trouiller, ST Microelectronics (France)
Olivier R. Toublan, Mentor Graphics Corp. (France)
Patrick Schiavone, Ctr. National de la Recherche Scientifique (France)
Yves Fabien Rody, Philips Semiconductors (France)
Pierre-Jerome Goirand, STMicroelectronics (France)

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