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Optical Engineering

Chip-level integrated diffractive optical micro-lenses for multimode vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser to fiber
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Paper Abstract

The standard assembly technologies for vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) to fiber coupling systems involve the integration of discrete elements with demanding requirements for alignment effort and time. We present a method for the monolithic integration of diffractive microlenses on the chip level. This process is based on a UV-casting replication technique using ORMOCER® (a registered trademark of Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) materials [hybrid organic-inorganic polymers (Streppel et al. 2001)] and offers the capability to be extended to a wafer-scale process. A mathematical description for the propagation of the laser modes through the system and the resulting fiber coupling efficiency is presented. We use a model for the source characteristics of the VCSEL based on a step-index fiber model for the simulation of the mode-field propagation. A model for the estimation of the diffraction efficiency of the lens is developed. Finally the simulations are compared with first experimental results of single replicated elements. Experimental coupling efficiencies for a multimode fiber [50/125, numerical aperture (NA) = 0.20] better than 0.7 over the entire operation range of the VCSEL are achieved. Losses below 0.5 dB (10%) are observed within lateral fiber displacement tolerances of ∓10 μm.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 December 2002
PDF: 10 pages
Opt. Eng. 41(12) doi: 10.1117/1.1518994
Published in: Optical Engineering Volume 41, Issue 12
Show Author Affiliations
Thomas Ammer, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland)
Michael T. Gale, Ctr. Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (Switzerland)
Markus Rossi, Heptagon (Switzerland)

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