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Journal of Electronic Imaging

Color image watermarking in the Karlhunen-Loeve transform domain
Author(s): Mauro Barni; Franco Bartolini; Alessia De Rosa; Alessandro Piva
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Paper Abstract

In the field of image watermarking, research has been mainly focused on gray scale image watermarking; the extension to the color case still represents one of the open issues watermarking researchers are faced with. To solve the problem of the correlation among image color bands, a new approach is proposed here which is based on the exploitation of the de-correlation property of the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT). The KLT is applied to the red, green, blue components of the host image, then watermarking is performed independently in the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) domain of the KL-transformed bands. In order to preserve watermark invisibility, embedding is achieved by modifying the magnitude of mid-frequency DFT coefficients according to an additivemultiplicative rule. In detection, KL de-correlation is exploited to design an optimum watermark decoder. In particular, based on the Neyman-Pearson criterion, the watermark presence is revealed by comparing a likelihood function against a threshold. Experimental results are presented proving the robustness of the algorithm against the most common image manipulations, and its superior performance with respect to techniques based on luminance watermarking.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 January 2002
PDF: 9 pages
J. Electron. Imag. 11(1) doi: 10.1117/1.1426383
Published in: Journal of Electronic Imaging Volume 11, Issue 1
Show Author Affiliations
Mauro Barni, Univ. degli Studi di Siena (Italy)
Franco Bartolini, Univ. degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)
Alessia De Rosa, Univ. degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)
Alessandro Piva, Univ. degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)

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