Share Email Print

Spie Press Book

Advanced Optics Using Aspherical Elements
Editor(s): Rudiger Hentschel; Bernhard Braunecker; Hans J. Tiziani
Format Member Price Non-Member Price

Book Description

Modern optical systems rely on leading-edge production technologies, especially when using aspherical optical elements. Due to the inherent complexity of aspheres, all efforts to push the technological limits are risky. Thus, to minimize risk, clear decisions based on a good understanding of technology are indispensable.

This compendium is written as an optical technology reference book for development and production engineers. With contributions from worldwide experts, this book aids in mitigating the risk in adopting new asphere production technologies.


Book Details

Date Published: 8 January 2008
Pages: 434
ISBN: 9780819467492
Volume: PM173

Table of Contents
SHOW Table of Contents | HIDE Table of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Motivation
1.2 Guideline

2 Basic Considerations
2.1 Preliminary Remarks
2.1.1 Optical element and wavefront propagation
2.1.2 Optical design and tolerancing
2.1.3 Production and metrology errors
2.1.4 System performance criteria
2.2 Definition of Aspherical Optical Elements
2.2.1 Basic characteristics of aspherical elements compared with spherical elements
2.2.2 Mathematical representation of aspherical surfaces
2.2.3 Specifying tolerances for aspherical optical elements
2.2.4 Surface texture
2.3 Drawing Indications
2.4 Information Exchange over Aspherical Elements
2.5 Study about Surface Errors
2.5.1 Aspherical laser collimator
2.5.2 Comparison of different surface-finishing technologies
2.5.3 Coherent beam propagation
2.5.4 Application case: Line marking on sport fields
2.5.5 References

3 Applications
3.1 Physical Considerations
3.2 Image Quality
3.3 Case Study
3.4 Design Drivers
3.5 Classifications
3.6 Technical Challenges
3.6.1 Centering
3.6.2 Stability criteria
3.6.3 More complex metrology
3.7 Application Spectrum

4 Materials of Aspheres
4.1 Glasses
4.2 Polymers
4.3 Glass Ceramics
4.4 Single Crystals and Polycrystalline Ceramics

5 Processing Technologies
5.1 Processing of Aspheres: The Historical Approach
5.1.1 Overview
5.1.2 Generating
5.1.3 Polishing
5.1.4 Forming
5.2 Overview Processing
5.2.1 Generating
5.2.2 Polishing
5.2.3 Local correction
5.2.4 Computer-controlled polishing (CCP)
5.2.5 Fluid jet polishing (FJP)
5.2.6 Magnetorheological finishing (MRF)
5.2.7 Ion beam figuring (IBF)
5.3 Process Chain for Processing Aspheres
5.4 Hybrid Technology
5.5 Molding
5.5.1 Precision glass molding
5.5.2 Plastic molding
5.5.3 Correlation--final surface quality--surface processing
5.5.4 References

6 Metrology
6.1 Measurement of Optical System Performance
6.2 Measurement of Individual Surfaces
6.3 Surface Metrology
6.3.1 Characterization of optical surfaces
6.4 Measurement of Surface Roughness and Waviness
6.5 Surface Form Measurement
6.5.1 Surface form measurement of nonpolished optical surfaces
6.5.2 Surface form measurements of polished optical surfaces
6.6 Interferometric Testing
6.6.1 Interferometric testing of aspherical surfaces with CGHs
6.6.2 Design and production of CGHs
6.7 Surface Form Measurement with a Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor
6.8 Comparison of Methods
6.9 References

7 Coating Technologies
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Market and Business
7.2.1 Global market for optical coatings
7.2.2 Coating types
7.2.3 Coating costs
7.2.4 Global markets
7.3 Deposition Technologies, Coating Design, and Monitoring
7.3.1 Deposition technologies
7.3.2 Coating design
7.3.3 Monitoring
7.4 Multifunctional Coatings on Plastic Optics
7.5 Actual Topics
7.6 Nanocoatings
7.7 Summary
7.8 References
7.9 Further Reading

8 Assembly Technologies
8.1 Relation between Design and Assembly
8.2 Review of Different Assembly Strategies
8.2.1 Assembly of consumer optics with spherical lenses
8.2.2 Assembly of high-end objectives with spherical lenses
8.2.3 Assembly of high-end objectives with aspherical lenses
8.2.4 Automated assembly of micro-optics
8.3 Errors and Tolerances
8.3.1 Component tolerances
8.3.2 Assembly tolerances
8.4 Compensators
8.5 Alignment of the Optical Axis of the Aspherical Components
8.6 Monolithic Optics
8.7 Technical Details
8.8 Reference

9 Future Trends
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Preliminary Remarks
9.3 Applications
9.4 Materials
9.5 Processing Technologies and Metrology
9.5.1 Integrated process-metrology
9.5.2 Null optics
9.5.3 Alternative metrology methods
9.5.4 Hybrid technologies
9.5.5 Adaptive systems
9.5.6 Free-form surfaces
9.5.7 Liquid lenses
9.5.8 Simulation and modeling
9.6 Coating Technologies
9.7 Assembly
9.7.1 Automatization
9.7.2 Cements and glues
9.7.3 Flexures
9.7.4 Complete processes
9.7.5 Monolithic optics
9.8 Conclusions and Outlook
9.9 Reference

10 Mathematical Formulation
10.1 Surfaces of Second-Order (Quadrics)
10.2 Basic Equation by ISO 10110--Part 12
10.2.1 Modifications

11 Applications
11.1 Illuminations
11.1.1 Digital projectors and rear-projection TVs
11.1.2 Automotive headlighting
11.1.3 Optical systems
11.1.4 Design drivers and degree of aspherization
11.1.5 Process and performance parameter
11.1.6 Outlook
11.1.7 References
11.2 Micro-Optic Cylindrical Aspherical Fast Axis Collimator for High Power Diode Laser
11.2.1 Application fields
11.2.2 Optical systems
11.2.3 Process and performance parameters
11.2.4 Materials
11.2.5 Manufacturing and tolerances
11.2.6 Quality control
11.2.7 Comments and outlook
11.2.8 Reference
11.3 Photo-Optics
11.3.1 Application fields
11.3.2 Optical systems
11.3.3 Design driver and degree of aspherization
11.3.4 Progress and performance parameters
11.3.5 Comments and outlook
11.3.6 Further reading
11.4 Aspheres for Large Format Lenses
11.4.1 Application of aspherical lenses for camera lens systems
11.4.2 Application of aspherical lenses for large, wide-angle systems
11.4.3 The task
11.4.4 The result
11.4.5 Production: manufacturing process
11.4.6 Precision and measuring equipment
11.4.7 Future perspectives
11.5 Aspherical Projection Lenses for UV- and EUV-Lithography
11.5.1 Introduction
11.5.2 Optical lithography at the edge of Raleigh's law
11.5.3 Aspheres for compact high-NA lenses
11.5.4 Immersion lithography
11.5.5 EUV lithography
11.5.6 Outlook
11.5.7 Acknowledgments
11.5.8 References
11.6 Large-Format Lenses for Aerial Surveying
11.6.1 Application fields
11.6.2 Optical systems
11.6.3 Design drivers and degree of aspherization
11.6.4 Process and performance parameters
11.6.5 Comments and outlook
11.6.6 References
11.7 Mirror Telescope for Space Communication
11.7.1 Application fields: optical link between satellites for data communication
11.7.2 Optical free-space communication systems
11.7.3 Design drivers and degree of aspherization
11.7.4 Process and performance parameters
11.7.5 Quality assurance
11.7.6 Comments and outlook
11.7.7 Reference
11.8 Free-form Correction Plate for Telescopes
11.8.1 Application fields
11.8.2 Design drivers and degree of aspherization
11.8.3 Process and performance parameters
11.8.4 Comments and outlook
11.8.5 Reference

12 Materials
12.1 Low-Tg Glass (nd < 1.6, vd > 65)
12.1.1 What has the glass been designed for?
12.1.2 Glass types
12.1.3 Optical properties
12.1.4 Mechanical properties
12.1.5 Chemical properties
12.1.6 Thermal properties
12.1.7 Current application
12.1.8 Potential application and outlook
12.1.9 What are the limitations?
12.1.10 Further reading
12.1.11 Links
12.1.12 Research and development
12.2 Low-Tg Glass (1.6 vd < nd < 1.9, 40 < vd < 65)
12.2.1 What has the glass been designed for?
12.2.2 Glass types
12.2.3 Optical properties
12.2.4 Mechanical properties
12.2.5 Chemical properties
12.2.6 Thermal properties
12.2.7 Current application
12.2.8 Potential application and outlook
12.2.9 What are the limitations?
12.2.10 Further reading
12.2.11 Links
12.2.12 Research and development
12.3 Low-Tg Glass (1.8 < nd, 30 > vd)
12.3.1 What has the glass been designed for?
12.3.2 Glass types
12.3.3 Optical properties
12.3.4 Mechanical properties
12.3.5 Chemical properties
12.3.6 Thermal properties
12.3.7 Current application
12.3.8 Potential application and outlook
12.3.9 What are the limitations?
12.3.10 Further reading
12.3.11 Links
12.3.12 Research and development
12.4 UV-Transmitting Glasses
12.4.1 What has the glass been designed for?
12.4.2 Glass types
12.4.3 Optical properties
12.4.4 Mechanical properties
12.4.5 Chemical properties
12.4.6 Thermal properties
12.4.7 Form of delivery
12.4.8 Current application
12.4.9 Potential application and outlook
12.4.10 What are the limitations?
12.4.11 Further reading
12.4.12 Links
12.4.13 Research and development
12.5 Fused Silica
12.5.1 What has the glass been designed for?
12.5.2 Glass types
12.5.3 Optical properties
12.5.4 Mechanical properties
12.5.5 Chemical properties
12.5.6 Thermal properties
12.5.7 Form of delivery
12.5.8 Current application
12.5.9 Potential application and outlook
12.5.10 What are the limitations?
12.5.11 Further reading
12.5.12 Links
12.5.13 Research and development
12.6 Optical Polymers
12.6.1 What has the polymer been used for?
12.6.2 Types of polymer
12.6.3 Optical properties
12.6.4 Mechanical properties
12.6.5 Chemical properties
12.6.6 Thermal properties
12.6.7 Form of delivery
12.6.8 Current application
12.6.9 Potential application and outlook
12.6.10 What are the limitations?
12.6.11 Further reading
12.6.12 Links
12.7 Crystals for UV Optics
12.7.1 What have the crystals been used for?
12.7.2 Types of crystals
12.7.3 Optical properties
12.7.4 Mechanical properties
12.7.5 Chemical properties
12.7.6 Thermal properties
12.7.7 Form of delivery
12.7.8 Current applicationv
12.7.9 What are the limitations?
12.7.10 Research and development
12.8 Crystals for IR Optics
12.8.1 What have the crystals been used for?
12.8.2 Types of crystals
12.8.3 Optical properties
12.8.4 Mechanical properties
12.8.5 Physical and chemical properties
12.8.6 Thermal properties
12.8.7 Form of delivery
12.8.8 Current application
12.8.9 What are the limitations?
12.8.10 Research and development
12.9 Glass Ceramics
12.9.1 What have the glass ceramics been used for?
12.9.2 Types of glass ceramics
12.9.3 Optical properties
12.9.4 Mechanical properties
12.9.5 Chemical properties
12.9.6 Thermal properties
12.9.7 Form of delivery
12.9.8 Current application
12.9.9 Potential application and outlook
12.9.10 What are the limitations?
12.10 Opto-Ceramics
12.10.1 Types of opto-ceramics
12.10.2 Optical properties
12.10.3 Mechanical properties
12.10.4 Thermal properties
12.10.5 Form of delivery
12.10.6 Current application
12.10.7 Potential outlook
12.10.8 What are the limitations?
12.10.9 Links
12.11 Glasses for IR Optics
12.11.1 What has the glass been designed for?
12.11.2 IR glass types
12.11.3 Optical properties
12.11.4 Mechanical properties
12.11.5 Chemical properties
12.11.6 Thermal properties
12.11.7 Form of delivery
12.11.8 Current application
12.11.9 Potential application and outlook
12.11.10 What are the limitations?
12.11.11 Further reading
12.11.12 Links
12.11.13 Research and development

13 Processing Technologies
13.1 Zonal Grinding Process
13.1.1 Basic assessment of the technology
13.1.2 What has the technology been developed for?
13.1.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
13.1.4 Description of process
13.1.5 Versions (state of the art)
13.1.6 Data for the zonal grinding process
13.1.7 Conclusions
13.1.8 Further reading
13.1.9 Links
13.2 Zonal Polishing Process
13.2.1 Basic assessment of the technology
13.2.2 What has the technology been developed for?
13.2.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
13.2.4 Description of process
13.2.5 Versions (state of the art)
13.2.6 Data for the zonal polishing process
13.2.7 Conclusions
13.2.8 Further reading
13.2.9 Links
13.3 Magnetorheological Finishing
13.3.1 Basic assessment of the technology
13.3.2 What has the technology been developed for?
13.3.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
13.3.4 Description of process
13.3.5 Versions (state of the art)
13.3.6 Data for magnetorheological finishing
13.3.7 Conclusions
13.3.8 Further reading
13.3.9 Links
13.4 Robotic Polishing
13.4.1 Basic assessment of the technology
13.4.2 What has the technology been developed for?
13.4.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
13.4.4 Description of process
13.4.5 Versions (state of the art)
13.4.6 Data for robotic polishing
13.4.7 Conclusions
13.4.8 Further reading
13.4.9 Links
13.5 Subaperture Robotic Polishing
13.5.1 Basic assessment of the technology
13.5.2 What has the technology been developed for?
13.5.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
13.5.4 Description of process
13.5.5 Data for subaperture robotic polishing
13.5.6 Conclusions
13.5.7 Status
13.5.8 Further reading
13.6 Robot-Assisted Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP)
13.6.1 Basic assessment of the technology
13.6.2 What has the technology been developed for?
13.6.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
13.6.4 Description of process
13.6.5 Versions (state of the art)
13.6.6 Performance and applications
13.6.7 Data for robot-assisted fluid jet polishing
13.6.8 Status
13.6.9 Further reading
13.6.10 Links
13.7 Ion Beam Polishing
13.7.1 Basic assessment of the technology
13.7.2 What has the technology been developed for?
13.7.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
13.7.4 Description of process
13.7.5 Versions (state of the art)
13.7.6 Data for ion beam polishing
13.7.7 Conclusions
13.7.8 Further reading
13.7.9 Links
13.8 Precision Glass Molding
13.8.1 Basic assessment of the technology
13.8.2 What has the technology been developed for?
13.8.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
13.8.4 Description of process
13.8.5 Data for precision glass molding
13.8.6 Conclusions
13.8.7 Status
13.9 Tools for Precision Glass Molding
13.9.1 Basic assessment of the technology
13.9.2 What has the technology been developed for?
13.9.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
13.9.4 Description of process
13.9.5 Data for tools for precision glass molding
13.9.6 Conclusions
13.9.7 Further reading
13.9.8 Links
13.10 Injection Molding of High-Precision Polymer Optics
13.10.1 Basic assessment of the technology
13.10.2 What has the technology been developed for?
13.10.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
13.10.4 Description of process
13.10.5 Data for injection molding of high-precision polymer optics
13.10.6 Further reading (nonrepresentative)
13.10.7 Links (nonrepresentative)
13.11 Aspherical Microlenses Manufactured by Wafer-Based Technology
13.11.1 Basic assessment of the technology
13.11.2 What has the technology been developed for?
13.11.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
13.11.4 Description of process
13.11.5 Data for aspherical microlenses manufactured by wafer-based technology
13.11.6 Conclusions
13.11.7 Status
13.11.8 Further reading

14 Metrology
14.1 Tactile Profile Measurement
14.1.1 Basic assessment of the technology
14.1.2 What has the technology been developed for?
14.1.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
14.1.4 Description of process
14.1.5 Versions (state of the art)
14.1.6 Data for tactile profile measurement
14.1.7 Links
14.2 Interferometry
14.2.1 Basic assessment of the technology
14.2.2 What has the technology been developed for?
14.2.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
14.2.4 Description of process
14.2.5 Data for interferometry
14.2.6 Conclusions
14.2.7 Status
14.2.8 Further reading
14.2.9 Links
14.3 Wavefront Sensor (Shack-Hartmann)
14.3.1 Basic assessment of the technology
14.3.2 What has the technology been developed for?
14.3.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
14.3.4 Description of process
14.3.5 Data for wavefront sensor (Shack-Hartmann)
14.3.6 Conclusions
14.3.7 Status
14.3.8 Further reading
14.3.9 Links
14.4 Surface/Microstructure Inspection
14.4.1 Basic assessment of the technology
14.4.2 What has the technology been developed for?
14.4.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
14.4.4 Description of process
14.4.5 Data for surface/microstructure inspection
14.4.6 Status
14.4.7 Further reading
14.4.8 Links

15 Coating Technologies
15.1 Coating Design
15.1.1 Basic assessment of the technology
15.1.2 What has the technology been developed for?
15.1.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
15.1.4 Description of process
15.1.5 Further reading
15.1.6 Links
15.2 Electron-Beam Evaporation
15.2.1 Basic assessment of the technology
15.2.2 What has the technology been developed for?
15.2.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
15.2.4 Description of process
15.2.5 Versions (state of the art)
15.2.6 Data for electron-beam evaporation
15.2.7 Further reading
15.3 Ion-Assisted Deposition (IAD)
15.3.1 Basic assessment of the technology
15.3.2 What has the technology been developed for?
15.3.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
15.3.4 Description of process
15.3.5 Versions (state of the art)
15.3.6 Data for ion-assisted deposition
15.3.7 Links
15.4 Ion Plating (IP) Deposition
15.4.1 Basic assessment of the technology
15.4.2 What has the technology been developed for?
15.4.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
15.4.4 Description of process
15.4.5 Data for ion plating deposition
15.4.6 Links
15.5 Advanced Plasma Source (APS)
15.5.1 Basic assessment of the technology
15.5.2 What has the technology been developed for?
15.5.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
15.5.4 Description of process
15.5.5 Data for advanced plasma source
15.5.6 Link
15.6 Magnetron Sputtering
15.6.1 Basic assessment of the technology
15.6.2 What has the technology been developed for?
15.6.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
15.6.4 Description of process
15.6.5 Versions (state of the art)
15.6.6 Data for magnetron sputtering
15.6.7 Conclusions
15.6.8 Further reading
15.7 Ion Beam Sputtering
15.7.1 Basic assessment of the technology
15.7.2 What has the technology been developed for?
15.7.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
15.7.4 Description of process
15.7.5 Versions (state of the art)
15.7.6 Data for ion beam sputtering
15.7.7 Conclusions
15.7.8 Further reading
15.7.9 Links
15.8 Plasma Impulse Chemical Vapor Deposition
15.8.1 Basic assessment of the technology
15.8.2 What has the technology been developed for?
15.8.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
15.8.4 Description of process
15.8.5 Versions (state of the art)
15.8.6 Data for plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition
15.8.7 Status
15.8.8 Conclusions
15.8.9 Further reading
15.8.10 Links

16 Assembly
16.1 Assembly of Spherical Lenses (Consumer Optics)
16.1.1 Basic assessment of the technology
16.1.2 What has the technology been developed for?
16.1.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
16.1.4 Description of process
16.1.5 Versions (state of the art)
16.1.6 Data for assembly of spherical lenses (consumer optics)
16.1.7 Conclusions
16.1.8 Link
16.2 Assembly of Spherical Lenses (HQ Optics)
16.2.1 Basic assessment of the technology
16.2.2 What has the technology been developed for?
16.2.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
16.2.4 Description of process
16.2.5 Data for assembly of spherical lenses (HQ Optics)
16.2.6 Further reading
16.2.7 Links
16.3 Assembly of Aspherical Lenses
16.3.1 Basic assessment of the technology
16.3.2 What has the technology been developed for?
16.3.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
16.3.4 Description of the process
16.3.5 Versions (state of the art)
16.3.6 Data for assembly of aspherical lenses
16.3.7 Limits of the technology
16.3.8 Conclusions
16.3.9 Further reading
16.4 Micro-Assembly TRIMO
16.4.1 Basic assessment of the technology
16.4.2 What has the technology been developed for?
16.4.3 What are the technology's typical features (basic idea)?
16.4.4 Description of process
16.4.5 Versions (state of the art)
16.4.6 Data for micro-assembly TRIMO
16.4.7 Limits of the technology
16.4.8 Conclusions
16.4.9 Further reading
16.5 CNC-Machined Monolithic Optics
16.5.1 Basic assessment of the technology
16.5.2 Description of process
16.5.3 Typical operation parameters
16.5.4 Conclusions
16.5.5 Further reading
16.5.6 Links

17 Biographies
17.1 Biography Editors
17.2 Biography Experts

Acknowledgements


© SPIE. Terms of Use
Back to Top