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Spie Press Book

Photonics Essentials
Author(s): Thomas P. Pearsall
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This unique text teaches photonics through hands-on measurement techniques common to all photonic devices. Learn these techniques and you can characterize and understand any device and master the field. This practice-based tutorial, perfect for students and engineers looking for practical expertise rather than abstract theory, does more than explain the workings of photonic applications in common devices like lasers, photodiodes, and LEDs. It offers worked examples of measurement and characterization problems faced in everyday encounters with commercial photonic equipment.


Book Details

Date Published: 10 August 2006
Pages: 298
Volume: PM167

Table of Contents
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Preface ix
Part I Introductory Concepts
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Electrons and Photons 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 The Fundamental Relationships 8
2.3 Properties of Photons 10
2.4 Properties of Electrons 14
2.5 Some History 20
2.6 Changing Places: How Electrons Behave in Solids 23
2.7 Summary 30
Bibliography 30
Problems 32
Part II Photonic Devices
Chapter 3 Photodiodes 37
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 The Current-Voltage Equation for Photodiodes 38
3.3 Photodiode Operation: The Photocurrent Mode and the Photovoltage Mode 47
3.4 Photodiode Properties 48
3.4.1 Spectral Response 48
3.4.2 Quantum Efficiency 52
3.5 Summary 56
Bibliography 57
Problems 58
Chapter 4 Electrical Response Time of Diodes 61
4.1 Introduction 61
4.2 Modeling the Response Time of Photodiodes 62
4.3 Diffusion Time 63
4.4 Drift 65
4.5 The Resistance-Capacitance Response Time 66
4.6 Capacitance of Diodes in Forward Bias 70
4.7 Measurement of Diode Capacitance and Carrier Concentration 71
4.8 Application of Light-Emitting Diodes 72
4.9 Summary 73
Bibliography 74
Problems 75
Chapter 5 Photoconductivity 77
5.1 Introduction 77
5.2 Conductivity and Mobility 77
5.3 Gain and Bandwidth 79
5.4 Engineering Photoconductivity 84
5.5 Photographic Film and Photoconductivity 87
5.6 Sensitization 91
5.7 Summary 97
Bibliography 99
Problems 100
Chapter 6 Light-Emitting Diodes 101
6.1 Introduction 101
6.2 Recombination of Excess Carriers - Direct Generation of Light 104
6.3 The Energy Spectrum of Light 107
6.4 Quantum Efficiency 114
6.5 Beating the Experts: New Thinking Creates a Pathway to Increased Efficiency 116
6.6 Response Time 123
6.7 Steady-State Input Electrical Current and Output LED Optical Power 123
6.8 Rise Time of the Light-Emitting Diode 129
6.9 Summary 138
6.10 Review of Important Concepts 138
References 138
Problems 139
Chapter 7 Lasers 143
7.1 Amplifiers and Feedback 144
7.2 Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission 146
7.3 Optical Gain 150
7.4 Obtaining Population Inversion 153
7.5 Optical Feedback - Making a Laser 159
7.6 Threshold - Going Over the Edge 164
7.7 A True Story 168
7.8 Summary 171
Bibliography 171
Problems and Exercises 173
Part III Advanced Topics
Chapter 8 Direct Modulation of Laser Diodes 177
8.1 Introduction 177
8.2 Time-Dependent Behavior of Laser Diodes during Current Modulation 179
8.3 Summary 188
Bibliography 189
Problems and Exercises 190
Chapter 9 Optical Fibers and Optical Fiber Amplifiers 191
9.1 Introduction 191
9.2 Glass 194
9.3 Optical Fiber Engineering 197
9.4 Waveguiding in Optical Fibers 198
9.5 More Capacity 204
9.6 Optical Amplifiers 212
9.7 Summary 220
Bibliography 221
Problems 222
Part IV Characterizing Photonic Devices in the Laboratory
Chapter 10 Measurements in Photonics 227
10.1 Introduction 227
10.2 Lenses 228
10.3 Monochromators and Spectrometers 230
10.4 Gratings 231
10.5 Mirrors 233
10.6 The Spectrometer/Monochromator System 235
10.7 Lock-in Amplifier 237
10.8 Chopping Wheel or Chopper 238
10.9 Photon Detectors 240
10.10 Curve Tracer 240
10.11 Summary 241
Bibliography 241
Problems 242
Chapter 11 Experimental Photonics: Device Characterization in the Laboratory 245
11.1 Current-Voltage Characteristic of Photodiodes and LEDs 245
11.2 Detection Using the Lock-in Amplifier 249
11.3 Optical Measurements Using the Monochromator and Spectrometer 252
11.4 Optical Properties of Light-Emitting Diodes 257
11.5 Device Capacitance 259
11.6 Characterization of Lasers 263
Index 279
About the Author 285

This unique text teaches photonics through hands-on measurement techniques common to all photonic devices. Learn these techniques and you can characterize and understand any device and master the field. This practice-based tutorial, perfect for students and engineers looking for practical expertise rather than abstract theory, does more than explain the workings of photonic applications in common devices like lasers, photodiodes, and LEDs. It offers worked examples of measurement and characterization problems faced in everyday encounters with commercial photonic equipment.

Thomas P. Pearsall has contributed to the development of materials and devices for optical fiber telecommunications since 1973, leading research and development of photonic technology at Bell Labs, Corning, and Thales. This textbook was developed while he was professor of electrical engineering, materials science, and physics at the University of Washington in Seattle, where he held the Boeing-Johnson Chair.


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