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Spie Press Book

Remote Sensing from Air and Space
Author(s): R.C. Olsen
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Book Description

This book will guide you in the use of remote sensing for military and intelligence gathering applications. It is a must read for students working on systems acquisition or for anyone interested in the products derived from remote sensing systems.

R. C. Olsen of the Naval Postgraduate School offers an eclectic description of the technologies and underlying physics for a wide range of remote sensing systems, including optical, thermal, radar, and lidar systems. This monograph describes this diverse set of applications using full-color graphics and a friendly, readable format.

Softcover version of PM162.


Book Details

Date Published: 22 January 2007
Pages: 270
Volume: PM162

Table of Contents
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Preface
Chapter 1 Introduction to Remote Sensing 1
1.1 Order of Battle 2
1.1.1 Air order of battle 3
1.1.2 Electronic order of battle 3
1.1.3 Space order of battle 7
1.1.4 Naval order of battle 8
1.2 Imagery Survey 9
1.2.1 Visible 9
1.2.2 Infrared (IR) 20
1.2.3 Radar (SAR) 24
1.3 Three Axes 26
1.4 Resources 28
1.5 Problems 29
Chapter 2 Electromagnetic Basics 33
2.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 33
2.1.1 Maxwell's equations 33
2.2 Polarization of Radiation 35
2.3 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves 35
2.3.1 Photoelectric effect 38
2.3.2 Photomultiplier tubes 39
2.4 Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation 41
2.4.1 Line spectra 42
2.4.2 Blackbody radiation 45
2.5 Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) - Matter Interactions 48
2.5.1 Transmission 49
2.5.2 Reflection 50
2.5.3 Scattering 51
2.5.4 Absorption 52
2.6 Problems 53
Chapter 3 Visible Imagery 55
3.1 The First Remote Sensing Satellite: Corona 55
3.1.1 A little history 55
3.1.2 The technology 56
3.1.3 Some illustrations 59
3.2 Atmospheric Absorption, Scattering, and Turbulence 63
3.2.1 Atmospheric absorption: wavelength dependence 63
3.2.2 Atmospheric scattering 64
3.2.3 Atmospheric turbulence 66
3.3 Basic Geometrical Optics 67
3.3.1 Focal length/geometry 67
3.3.2 Optical diagram: similar triangles, magnification 68
3.3.3 Aperture (F/stop) 69
3.3.4 Image formation by lens or pinhole 69
3.4 Diffraction Limits: the Rayleigh Criterion 70
3.5 Detectors 73
3.5.1 Film 74
3.5.2 Solid state 74
3.5.3 Focal plane arrays 78
3.5.4 Uncooled focal planes: Microbolometers 79
3.6 Imaging System Types 80
3.6.1 Framing systems - mostly film systems (Corona) 80
3.6.2 Scanning systems 80
3.7 Hubble: The Big Telescope 82
3.7.1 The Hubble satellite 82
3.7.2 The repair missions 84
3.7.3 Operating constraints 86
3.7.4 The telescope itself 86
3.7.5 Detectors - Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 88
3.8 Commercial Remote Sensing - IKONOS and Quickbird 92
3.8.1 IKONOS 95
3.8.2 NOB with IKONOS: Severodvinsk 97
3.9 DMSP: Visible Sensor, Earth at Night 98
3.10 Exposure Times 99
3.11 Problems 101
Chapter 4 Orbital Mechanics Interlude 103
4.1 Gravitational Force 103
4.2 Circular Motion 104
4.2.1 Equations of motion 104
4.2.2 Centripetal force 105
4.3 Satellite Motion 105
4.4 Kepler's Laws 106
4.4.1 Elliptical orbits 106
4.4.2 Equal areas swept out in equal times 107
4.4.3 Orbital period: T2 proportional to P3 108
4.5 Orbital Elements 108
4.5.1 Semi-major axis: a 108
4.5.2 Eccentricity: e or E 108
4.5.3 Inclination angle: I 108
4.5.4 Right ascension of the ascending node: Omega 109
4.5.5 Closest point of approach (argument of perigee): omega 109
4.6 A Few Standard Orbits 109
4.6.1 Low Earth orbit (LEO) 110
4.6.2 Medium Earth orbit (MEO) 111
4.6.3 Geosynchronous orbit (GEO) 111
4.6.4 Molniya orbit (HEO) 113
4.6.5 Summary table�illustrations 114
4.7 Problems 115
Chapter 5 EO-Spectral Imagery 117
5.1 Reflectance of Materials 117
5.2 Human Visual Response 118
5.3 Landsat 120
5.3.1 Orbit 121
5.3.2 Sensor: Thematic mapper 122
5.4 Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) 128
5.4.1 HRV sensor, pan/spectral - both 60-km swath 130
5.5 Spectral Responses for the Commercial Systems 131
5.6 Imaging Spectroscopy 132
5.6.1 AVIRIS 132
5.6.2 Hyperion 133
5.6.3 MightySat II-FTHSI 135
5.7 Problems 136
Chapter 6 Image Analysis 137
6.1 Interpretation Keys (elements of recognition) 137
6.1.1 Shape 137
6.1.2 Size 138
6.1.3 Shadow 138
6.1.4 Height (depth) 138
6.1.5 Tone or color 138
6.1.6 Texture 139
6.1.7 Pattern 139
6.1.8 Association 140
6.1.9 Site 140
6.1.10 Time 140
6.2 Image Processing 140
6.2.1 Digital numbers: pixels and pictures, histograms 142
6.2.2 Dynamic range - snow and black cats 143
6.2.3 Filters 146
6.3 Histograms and Target Detection 147
6.4 Histograms, Spectral Data, and Transforms 149
6.5 Supplemental Notes on Statistics 153
6.6 Problems 156
Chapter 7 Thermal Infrared 157
7.1 IR Basics 157
7.1.1 Blackbody radiation 157
7.1.2 Wien's displacement law 158
7.1.3 Stefan-Boltzmann law T 4 158
7.1.4 Emissivity 159
7.1.5 Atmospheric absorption 159
7.2 IR Concepts 159
7.2.1 Kinetic temperature 159
7.2.2 Thermal inertia, conductivity, capacity, diffusivity 160
7.3 Landsat 163
7.4 Early Weather Satellites 165
7.4.1 TIROS 166
7.4.2 NIMBUS 166
7.5 GOES 167
7.5.1 Satellite and sensor 167
7.5.2 Weather and storms - Hurricane Mitch 169
7.5.3 Volcanoes and ash clouds 170
7.5.4 Shuttle launch: vapor trail, rocket 171
7.6 Defense Support Program - DSP 172
7.7 SEBASS - thermal spectral 175
7.7.1 Hard targets 175
7.7.2 Gas measurements: Kilauea�Pu 'u 'O 'o Vent 176
7.8 Problems 178
Chapter 8 Radar 179
8.1 Imaging Radar 179
8.2 Theory 179
8.2.1 Imaging radar basics 179
8.2.2 Radar range resolution 182
8.2.3 Radar azimuthal resolution 185
8.2.4 Beam pattern and resolution 186
8.3 Synthetic-Aperture Radar 188
8.4 Radar Cross Section 191
8.4.1 Dielectric coefficient: soil moisture 192
8.4.2 Roughness 194
8.4.3 Tetrahedrons/corner reflectors 194
8.5 Polarization 195
8.6 Wavelength 196
8.7 Vehicles 197
8.7.1 Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) 197
8.7.2 RADARSAT: ship detection 201
8.7.3 European radar satellites: ERS-1, ERS-2 202
8.7.4 Sandia Ku-band airborne radar 206
8.8 Problems 208
Chapter 9 Radar and LIDAR 211
9.1 Radar Interferometry 211
9.1.1 Topographic mapping 211
9.1.2 The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapping (SRTM)
Mission 214
9.2 LIDAR 219
9.2.1 Introduction 219
9.2.2 OPTECH: Airborne Laser Terrain Mapper (ALTM) 220
9.2.3 Bathymetry 222
9.3 Exercise 224
Appendix 1 Derivations 225
A1.1 Derivation of the Bohr Atom 225
A1.2 Dielectric Theory 229
A1.3 Derivation of the Beam Pattern for a Square Aperture 230
Appendix 2 CORONA 233
A2.1 Mission Overview 233
A2.2 Camera Data 234
A2.3 Mission Summary 235
A2.4 Orbits - An Example 242
Appendix 3 Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System 243
A3.1 Relay Satellites - TDRSS 243
A3.2 White Sands 244
A3.3 TDRS 1 to 7 245
A3.3.1 Satellites 245
A3.3.2 Payload 246
A3.4 TDRS H 247
A3.4.1 TDRS H, I, and J Payload Characteristics 247
Appendix 4 Useful Equations and Constants 249
Index 251

Preface

This text is designed to meet the needs of students interested in remote sensing as a tool for the study of military and intelligence problems. It focuses on the technology of remote sensing, both for students who will be working in systems acquisition offices and for those who might eventually need to be "informed consumers" of the products derived from remote sensing systems. I hope it will also be useful for those who eventually work in the remote sensing field.

This text maintains as much as possible a focus on the physics of remote sensing. As a physicist, I'm more interested in the technology of acquiring data than the final applications. Therefore, this work differs from related textbooks that favor civilian applications, particularly geology, agriculture, weather (atmosphere), and oceanography. By contrast, I have concentrated on satellite systems, including power and telemetry systems, since this knowledge is important for those trying to develop new remote sensing systems. For example, one of the ongoing themes is how bandwidth constraints define what you can and cannot do in terms of remote sensing.

From a tactical perspective, low-spatial-resolution systems are not very interesting, so this text focuses on systems of high spatial resolution. This is not to deny the utility of, say, weather systems for the military, but that is a domain of a different sort, and one I leave to that community. Similarly, although oceanography is clearly important to the navy, that too is a topic I leave to another community. Unlike earlier texts, this text avoids discussion of the older film-based imaging systems. When I started this text the IKONOS satellite had not yet been launched, so it is a curious thing that a document created in part due to the technological obsolescence of earlier textbooks may already be in some danger of falling behind! Remote sensing appears to be emerging as the third field, following communications and navigation, to become economically viable in space, and it is with great anticipation that we await the changes of a coming generation of imaging systems.

This text is organized according to a fairly typical progression - basic physics first, then visible optical systems, followed by infrared and radar systems. The necessary physics is developed for each domain, followed by a look at a few operational systems that are appropriate for that section. Somewhat unusual for a text of this sort is a chapter on how orbital mechanics influences remote sensing. Finally, I will conclude the preface with a few basic questions. What is remote sensing? What is it good for? What do you need to know in order to use this technology? The text that follows will address these questions.

R. C. Olsen
Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA
November 2006


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