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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Adaptive Optics
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Book Description

"...These field guides will be immensely useful to all scientists and engineers who wish to brush up on authentic definitions, equations, and tables of data in optics. And the format is really user friendly! I...wonder now how I ever got along in optics without this ready reference....a real winner!"

--Dr. Leno S. Pedrotti, Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD)

Third in the Field Guide Series, this is a summary of the methods for determining the requirements of an adaptive optics system, the performance of the system, and the requirements for the components of the system. Many of the expressions are in the form of integrals. When that is the case, the authors show the results graphically for a variety of practical values. This volume is intended for students, researchers, and practicing engineers who want a "go to" book when the calculation is needed quickly.


Book Details

Date Published: 7 June 2004
Pages: 82
Volume: FG03

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents
Glossary ix
Acronyms xiv
Introduction / 1
Conventional Adaptive Optics System / 1
Image Spread with Atmospheric Turbulence / 2
The Principle of Phase Conjugation / 3
Point Spread Function for an Astronomical Telescope / 4
Modeling the Effect of Atmospheric Turbulence / 5
Fried's Coherence Length / 5
Astronomical "Brightness" / 6
Isoplanatic Angle / 7
Zernike Polynomials / 8
Atmospheric Turbulence Models / 10
Coherence Length for Various Wavelengths and Turbulence Models / 11
Wind Models / 12
Kolmogorov Model--Outer Scale L0 and Inner Scale l0 / 13
Greenwood Frequency 14
Angle of Arrival Fluctuations (Image Motion) /15
Modulation Transfer Function /16
Beam Propagation / 17
Laser "Brightness" / 17
The Strehl Ratio--Laser Beam Propagation to the Far Field with Wavefront Error / 18
Strehl Ratio / 19
Spot Size for a Gaussian Beam / 20
Spot Size for a Uniform Circular Aperture / 21
System Performance Estimation / 22
System Performance Estimation / 22
Modal and Zonal Fitting Error / 23
Partial Correction / 24
Temporal Error / 25
Focal Anisoplanatism (the "Cone Effect") / 26
Laser Guide Stars / 27
Scintillation / 29
Wavefront Sensors / 30
Wavefront Sensor Requirements / 30
Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor and Error / 31
Lenslet Array Selection / 33
Shearing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor and Error / 34
Curvature Wavefront Sensor and Error / 36
Deformable Mirrors / 37
Tilt Mirror Requirements / 37
Deformable Mirror Requirements / 38
Deformable Mirror Actuator Configurations / 39
Actuator and Wavefront Sensor Layouts / 40
Actuators: Requirements for Zonal or Modal Control / 41
Deformable Mirror Influence Function Models / 42
Bimorph and MEMS Mirrors / 43
Segmented Deformable Mirrors / 44
Control and Reconstruction / 45
Adaptive Optics System Control Model / 45
Reconstructor / 46
Wavefront Control / 47
Influence Matrix / 48
Kalman Filtering and Wavefront Estimation / 49
Computational Latency / 50
Predictor / 51
Effect of Sampling Rate on Achievable Bandwidth / 52
Hartmann Sensing Software Implementation / 53
Appendix / 54
Equation Summary / 54
Notes / 60
Bibliography 62
Index 65

Field Guide to Adaptive Optics

There have been a number of books and thousands of papers published with descriptions and mathematical expressions regarding adaptive optics. The material in this Field Guide is a summary of the methods for determining the requirements of an adaptive optics system, the performance of the system, and requirements for the components of the system.

This book is not just another book on adaptive optics. There are already many fine volumes. This volume is intended for students, researchers, and practicing engineers who want a "go to" book when the calculation was "needed yesterday" (by a customer who won't be paying for it until the next fiscal year).

Many of the expressions are in the form of integrals. When that is the case, we show the results graphically for a variety of practical values.

Some of the material in this volume duplicates similar expressions found in other volumes of the Field Guide series. We have attempted to remain consistent with symbols of the other volumes. In some cases, however, we chose different symbols because they are well known within the adaptive optics literature.

Descriptions of the operation of subsystems and components and specific engineering aspects remain in the citations of the Bibliography.

This Field Guide is dedicated to the late Horace Babcock, whose pioneering ideas created the field of adaptive optics.

Robert K. Tyson
University of North Carolina, Charlotte

Ben W. Frazier
Xinetics, Inc.


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