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Optical Coating Technology
Author(s): Philip W. Baumeister
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Book Description

Baumeister organizes this book around the key subjects associated with functions of optical thin film performance, and provides a valuable resource in the field of thin film technology. The information is widely backed up with citations to patents and published literature. The author draws from 25 years of experience teaching classes at the UCLA Extension Program, and at companies worldwide to answer questions, such as: what are the conventions for a given analysis formalism? and, what other design approaches have been tried for this application?

Book Details

Date Published: 2 April 2004
Pages: 840
ISBN: 9780819453136
Volume: PM137

Table of Contents
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Foreward /
Preface /
Chapter 1 How coatings are used and integrated into optical systems
1.1 Fabrication of multilayer interference devices / 1-1
1.2 Nomenclature and general properties / 1-5
1.3 Antireflection coatings / 1-11
1.4 Spectral filtering and narrowband rejection / 1-21
1.5 Filters with broad spectral bandwidth / 1-25
1.6 Bandpasses
1.7 Reflectors - used principally at normal incidence / 1-49
1.8 Beamdividers, dichroics and polarizers / 1-65
1.9 Miscellaneous topics / 1-92
1.10 Appendices
Chapter 2 Fundamentals
2.0 Overview of chapter / 2-1
2.1 Overview of intuitive approach / 2-1
2.2 Reflection and transmission at an interface / 2-6
2.3 Phase shift upon reflection and node of the standing wave / 2-27
2.4 Properties of a multilayer / 2-34
2.5 Design concepts used at nonnormal incidence / 2-59
2.6 Aids to computation / 2-64
2.7 Properties of a stack with equal optical thickness layers / 2-83
2.8 Graphical aids to multilayer design / 2-90
2.9 Standing waves, net flux ratio and absorption / 2-95
2.10 Appendices - Propagation of electromagnetic waves / 2-112
2.11 Appendices / 2-118
Chapter 3 Thin films, the building blocks of multilayers
3.0 Purpose of this chapter / 3-1
3.1 Methods of depositing a thin film - a conceptual view / 3-2
3.2 Deposition methods - hardware and procedures / 3-3
3.3 Overview of physical vapor deposition and film formation / 3-12
3.4 Process parameters influencing optical properties / 3-18
3.5 Criteria for thin film material selection / 3-25
3.6 Survey of coating materials / 3-36
3.7 (Appendix) List of useful coating materials / 3-40
Chapter 4 Reflection reducing coatings
4.0 Introduction / 4-1
4.1 Antireflection coating design by computer optimization / 4-1
4.2 Design methods and evaluation of antireflection coatings / 4-6
4.3 Multiple quarterwave and other narrowband designs / 4-11
4.4 All-dielectric antireflection coatings deposited upon metallic layers / 4-17
4.5 Coatings with broader spectral bandwidth - maximally flat designs / 4-21
4.6 Coating with zero reflectance at two or more wavelengths / 4-25
4.7 Chebyshev antireflection coatings / 4-30
4.8 Step-up and step-down of admittance / 4-32
4.9 Miscellaneous topics / 4-36
4.10 Appendix: Proofs, derivations and designs / 4-47
Chapter 5 Reflectors, edge filters and periodic structures
5.1 Introduction / 5-1
5.2 Analysis of the basic period / 5-7
5.3 "Single-stack" coatings / 5-19
5.4 Edge filter design / 5-58
5.5 Broadband reflectors and rejection filters / 5-68
5.6 Phase shift upon reflection / 5-74
5.7 Miscellaneous topics / 5-80
5.8 Appendices / 5-86
Chapter 6 Beamdividers and polarizers
6.1 Introduction / 6-1
6.2 Nonimmersed linear polarizers containing quarterwave layers / 6-7
6.3 Immersed linear polarizers / 6-15
6.4 Nonpolarizing nonimmersed designs / 6-29
6.5 Nonpolarizing immersed coatings / 6-34
6.6 Miscellaneous topics / 6-41
6.7 Appendices containing derivations / 6-42
6.8 Appendices containing multilayer designs / 6-44
Chapter 7 All-dielectric bandpass filters
7.1 Introduction / 7-1
7.2 Control of the spectral bandwidth / 7-6
7.3 Periodic-structure bandpass design method / 7-11
7.4 Filter design using two components / 7-14
7.5 Periodic structures containing three materials / 7-20
7.6 Microwave design method / 7-28
7.7 Examples of conventional bandpass design / 7-48
7.8 Bandpasses for optical fiber communication / 7-59
7.9 Additional topics / 7-68
7.10 Miscellaneous topics and appendices / 7-91
Chapter 8 Coatings that contain absorbing layers
8.1 Introduction / 8-1
8.2 Bandpass filters - general properties / 8-3
8.3 Design procedures for metal-dielectric bandpass filters / 8-17
8.4 Bandpass filter design examples / 8-21
8.5 Dark mirror absorber / 8-30
8.6 Reflectors / 8-32
8.7 Beamdivider containing silver / 8-33
8.8 Neutral density coatings / 8-34
8.9 Miscellaneous topics / 8-36
Chapter 9 Coating deposition
9.1 Introduction / 9-1
9.2 Cleaning of a substrate prior to coating it / 9-2
9.3 Tooling, initial pumpdown, ion bombardment and heating of substrates / 9-3
9.4 Thin film deposition / 9-9
9.5 Collection of the evaporant upon the substrates / 9-23
9.6 The control of layer thickness during deposition / 9-45
9.7 Mechanical stress in optical coatings / 9-71
9.8 Appendices / 9-75
Chapter 10 Miscellaneous topics
10.0 Overview of chapter / 10-1
10.1 Graphical aids to multilayer design / 10-1
10.2 Optimization / 10-7
10.3 Overall transmittance of an array of coated objects / 10-16
10.4 Performance of coatings - their optical characteristics / 10-29
10.5 Performance of coatings and their non-optical characteristics / 10-36
10.6 Phase relations in multilayers / 10-38
10.7 The influence of a coating upon a transmitted or reflected wavefront / 10-46
Chapter 11 References to the literature
Chapter 12 Notation and definitions of terminology
12.1 Symbols - general comments / 12-1
12.2 Symbols / 12-1
12.3 Glossary of terminology / 12-9
Index

PREFACE

This book is intended to instruct a technologist in the design and fabrication of thin film coatings that function by means of optical interference. Two years or more of college level instruction in the physical sciences is a desirable prerequisite for the reader. The book is an outgrowth of a course that was taught at the UCLA Extension from 1978 to 1999.

What this book is not: (1) This book is not a survey of the literature. The exigencies of time have made it impossible to reference all previous publications on all subjects. The author apologizes to those deserving authors whose works are not mentioned. (2) This book is not a catalogue from which a reader may select coatings and procure them. In Chap. 1, reflectance and transmittance curves of coatings from various manufacturers merely show what that manufacturer produced at one time. That product may, or may not still be in production and if it is, its performance could easily be far superior to that shown in this book. In other instances the manufacturer that produced certain coatings no longer exists. Commercial vendors do not assume any product liability by virtue of the presentation of data from their sales literature. What is the author's right to speak on this subject? He began his study of optical coatings at the University of California (Berkeley) Physics Department in 1955. Later he instructed graduate students in coating fabrication and design at the University of Rochester. He served as Chief Scientist at OCLI (Santa Rosa, California) for a half decade, where he supervised a group that developed new processes and automated coating chambers. He was employed as a production engineer in the coating department of Coherent, Inc. and as a Senior Project Engineer with Deposition Sciences, Inc., in Santa Rosa, California. He is now a consultant, dwelling in the bucolic rural solitude of Sebastopol, California.

The preparation of this lucubration spans several decades and its chief benefit to the author has been the mental discipline demanded to organize thoroughly and write tersely. The desideratum could be Nobel Laureate Chandrasekhar's statement: "I don't want to be trivial." (Quoted in The Christian Science Monitor, 2 December 1983). The stylist conventions of the American Institute of Physics are used, as are SI units where possible, although a few non-SI "Torr" pressure units appear. Radiometric terminology is precise; intensity is flux/solid angle and irradiance is flux/unit area. A few unfamiliar terms such as dereflect and molecular intensity are defined before their use.

Conversations with Oded Arnon, Verne Costich, Jay Eastman, Douglas Harrison, Erik Krisl and Doug Smith have been useful in clarifying some of the concepts in this book. The author is grateful to Konstantin V. Popov, Barbara Russell and Lita Holleman for their work in making the mathematical text and written text more accurate. Some of the clever drawings of Chap. 3 bear the stamp of George Russell. In the editorial work involved in getting the book into its final form, the contributions of Ric Shimshock and my three daughters, Dr. Nancy Charlotte Baumeister, PhD, Ms. Lynn Karin Baumeister and Ms. Carol Lisa Baumeister, are gratefully acknowledged.

My twelve days of instruction in the class of Joseph Frederick Ware, C.S.B., laid the foundation for this book.

Philip Baumeister


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