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Sensor and Data Fusion for Intelligent Transportation Systems
Author(s): Lawrence A. Klein
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Book Description

Sensor and Data Fusion for Intelligent Transportation Systems introduces readers to the roles of the data fusion processes defined by the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion model and the Data Fusion Information Group (DFIG) enhancements, data fusion algorithms, and noteworthy applications of data fusion to intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Additionally, the monograph offers detailed descriptions of three of the widely applied data fusion techniques and their relevance to ITS (namely, Bayesian inference, Dempster‒Shafer evidential reasoning, and Kalman filtering), and indicates directions for future research in the area of data fusion. The focus is on data fusion algorithms rather than on sensor and data fusion architectures, although the book does summarize factors that influence the selection of a fusion architecture and several architecture frameworks.

Book Details

Date Published: 26 June 2019
Pages: 254
ISBN: 9781510627642
Volume: PM305

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

List of Acronyms

1 Introduction
1.1 Applications to ITS
1.2 Data, Information, and Knowledge
1.3 Summary of Book Contents

2 Sensor and Data Fusion in Traffic Management
2.1 What is Meant by Sensor and Data Fusion?
2.2 Sensor and Data Fusion Benefits to Traffic Management
2.3 Data Sources for Traffic Management Applications
2.4 Sensor and Data Fusion Architectures
      2.4.1 Architecture selection
      2.4.2 Architecture classification
2.5 Detection, Classification, and Identification of a Vehicle
2.6 The JDL and DFIG Data Fusion Models
2.7 Level 1 Fusion: Detection, Classification, and Identification Algorithms
      2.7.1 Physical models
      2.7.2 Feature-based inference techniques
      2.7.3 Cognitive-based models
2.8 Level 1 Fusion: State Estimation and Tracking Algorithms
      2.8.1 Prediction gates, correlation metrics, and data association
      2.8.2 Single- and two-level data and track association
      2.8.3 Deterministic and probabilistic (all-neighbor) association
2.9 Data Fusion Algorithm Selection
2.10 Level 2 and Level 3 Fusion Processing
      2.10.1 Level 2 processing
      2.10.2 Level 3 processing
      2.10.3 Situation awareness
      2.10.4 Application to connected and self-driving vehicles
2.11 Level 4 Fusion Processing
2.12 Level 5 Fusion Processing
2.13 Applications of Sensor and Data Fusion to ITS
      2.13.1 Advanced transportation management systems
      2.13.2 Automatic incident detection
      2.13.3 Network control
      2.13.4 Advanced traveler information systems
      2.13.5 Advanced driver assistance systems
      2.13.6 Crash analysis and prevention
      2.13.7 Traffic demand estimation
      2.13.8 Traffic forecasting and traffic monitoring
      2.13.9 Position and heading estimation
2.14 Summary

3 Bayesian Inference for Traffic Management
3.1 Bayesian Inference
3.2 Derivation of Bayes' Theorem
3.3 Likelihood Function and Prior Probability Models
3.4 Monty Hall Problem
      3.4.1 Case-by-case analysis solution
      3.4.2 Conditional probability solution
      3.4.3 Bayesian inference solution
3.5 Application of Bayes' Theorem to Cancer Screening
3.6 Bayesian Inference in Support of Data Fusion
3.7 Bayesian Inference Applied to Vehicle Identification
3.8 Bayesian Inference Applied to Freeway Incident Detection Using Multiple Source Data
      3.8.1 Problem development
      3.8.2 Numerical example
3.9 Bayesian Inference Applied to Truck Classification
      3.9.1 MCS architecture
      3.9.2 MCS operation
      3.9.3 Data collection and conclusions
3.10 Causal Bayesian Networks
      3.10.1 Directed acyclic graphs
      3.10.2 Application to maneuver-based trajectory prediction and criticality assessment
3.11 Summary

4 Dempster–Shafer Evidential Reasoning for Traffic Management
4.1 Overview of the Process
4.2 Implementation of the Method
4.3 Support, Plausibility, and Uncertainty Interval
4.4 Dempster's Rule for Combining Multiple-Sensor Data
4.5 Vehicle Detection Using Dempster–Shafer Evidential Reasoning
      4.5.1 Dempster's rule applied to compatible data sets
      4.5.2 Dempster's rule with null set elements
      4.5.3 Dempster's rule with singleton propositions
4.6 Singleton Proposition Vehicle Detection Problem Solved with Bayesian Inference
4.7 Constructing Probability Mass Functions
      4.7.1 Knowledge of sensor operation and object signature characteristics
      4.7.2 Known probability distributions for the parameters of interest
      4.7.3 Confusion matrix creation
      4.7.4 Number and degree of matching of features to those of objects of interest
      4.7.5 Exponential probability mass model
4.8 Decision Support System Application of Dempster–Shafer Reasoning
      4.8.1 Field test description
      4.8.2 Field test conclusions
4.9 Comparison with Bayesian Inference
4.10 Modifications to the Original Dempster–Shafer Method
4.11 Summary

5 Kalman Filtering for Traffic Management
5.1 Optimal Estimation
5.2 Kalman Filter Application to Object Tracking
5.3 State Transition Model
5.4 Measurement Model
      5.4.1 Measurement error-covariance matrix for a three- and two-dimensional problem
      5.4.2 Object in straight-line motion
5.5 The Discrete-Time Kalman Filter Algorithm
5.6 Relation of Measurement-to-Track Correlation Decision to the Kalman Gain
5.7 Initialization and Subsequent Recursive Operation of the Kalman Filter
5.8 α–β Filter
      5.8.1 Application and relation to Kalman gain
      5.8.2 α–β filter equations for state estimate prediction and correction
      5.8.3 Noise reduction and transient response properties of the α–β filter
      5.8.4 Expressions for β as a function of α
5.9 Kalman Gain Control Methods
      5.9.1 Preventing the gain from becoming too small
      5.9.2 Preventing the gain from becoming too large
5.10 Noise Covariance Values and Filter Tuning
5.11 Process Noise Covariance Matrix Models
      5.11.1 Constant velocity object process noise model
      5.11.2 Constant acceleration object process noise model
5.12 Interacting Multiple Model for Vehicle Motion on a Roadway
      5.12.1 Kinematic models
      5.12.2 IMM implementation
      5.12.3 Test results
5.13 Extended Kalman Filter
5.14 Summary

6 State of the Practice and Research Gaps
6.1 Data Fusion State of the Practice
6.2 Need for Continued Data Fusion Research
      6.2.1 Reliability and quality of input data to the fusion system
      6.2.2 Security of the data fusion system
      6.2.3 Fusion of hard and soft data
      6.2.4 Assessing the fusion system using measures of performance
      6.2.5 Ground truth
      6.2.6 Commercial database management system and operating system suitability
      6.2.7 Design for worst-case data transmission and processing scenarios
      6.2.8 Additional research needs
6.3 Prerequisite Information for Level 1 Object Assessment Algorithms

Appendix: The Fundamental Matrix of a Fixed Continuous-Time System


This book was prepared to give students and traffic management professionals a concise description of the benefits that sensor and data fusion bring to the transportation community, especially for Intelligent Transportation System, connected and cooperative vehicle, and autonomous vehicle operations. The book highlights data fusion processes that enhance the interpretation of information gathered from a diverse mixture of sensors and other data sources, and a complex environment characterized by the presence of different types of vehicles, unexpected objects such as pedestrians darting across a roadway, inclement weather, vehicles changing lanes, and roadside structures or weather effects that interfere with the normal observation of traffic patterns and the gathering of needed data. Several data fusion algorithms that combine information from infrastructure-based sensors and other sources of information, such as cellular phones, probe vehicles, global positioning system location devices, and connected and automated vehicles, are described with illustrative examples of their application to traffic management.

Readers desiring additional information concerning sensor and data fusion are referred to Sensor and Data Fusion: A Tool for Information Assessment and Decision Making, Second Edition, SPIE Press, Bellingham, Washington (2012) [doi: 10.1117/3.928035], which is also written by the author.

Lawrence A. Klein
June 2019

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