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Principles of Lithography, Fourth Edition
Author(s): Harry J. Levinson
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Book Description

This newest edition of Principles of Lithography reflects the continuing advancement of lithographic technology. In recent years, certain topics, such as line-edge roughness (LER), multi-electron-beam writers, and nonlinear overlay models, have become much more significant to practicing lithographers, and more extensive treatments are therefore provided. EUV lithography is on the threshold for use in high-volume manufacturing, at nodes where a number of complex phenomena are relevant, and the chapter on EUV lithography has been expanded accordingly. New references and homework problems have been added. It is expected that the reader of this book will have a foundation in basic physics and chemistry. No topics will require knowledge of mathematics beyond elementary calculus.

Book Details

Date Published: 24 May 2019
Pages: 630
ISBN: 9781510627604
Volume: PM304

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Overview of Lithography
Problems

Chapter 2 Optical Pattern Formation
2.1 The Problem of Imaging
2.2 Aerial Images
2.3 The Contributions of Physics and Chemistry
2.4 Focus
Problems
References

Chapter 3 Photoresists
3.1 Positive and Negative Resists
3.2 Adhesion Promotion
3.3 Resist Spin Coating, Softbake, and Hardbake
3.4 Photochemistry of Novolak/DNQ g- and i-line Resists
3.5 Acid-Catalyzed DUV Resists
3.6 Development and Post-Exposure Bakes
3.7 Operational Characterization
3.8 Line-Edge Roughness
3.9 Multilayer Resist Processes
Problems
References

Chapter 4 Modeling and Thin-Film Effects
4.1 Models of Optical Imaging
4.2 Aberrations
4.3 Modeling Photochemical Reactions
4.4 Thin-Film Optical Effects
4.5 Post-Exposure Bakes
4.6 Methods for Addressing the Problems of Reflective Substrates
4.7 Development
4.8 Quantum Effects and Modeling
4.9 Summary of Modeling
Problems
References

Chapter 5 Wafer Steppers and Scanners
5.1 Overview
5.2 Light Sources
5.3 Illumination Systems
5.4 Reduction Lenses
5.5 Autofocus Systems
5.6 The Wafer Stage
5.7 Scanning
5.8 Dual-Stage Exposure Tools
5.9 Lithography Exposure Tools before Steppers
Problems
References

Chapter 6 Overlay
6.1 Alignment Systems
     6.1.1 Classification of alignment systems
     6.1.2 Optical methods for alignment and wafer-to-reticle referencing
     6.1.3 Number of alignment marks
6.2 Overlay Models
6.3 Matching
6.4 Process-Dependent Overlay Effects
Problems
References

Chapter 7 Masks and Reticles
7.1 Overview
7.2 Mask Blanks
7.3 Mechanical Optical-Pattern Generators
7.4 Electron-Beam Lithography and Single-Beam Mask Writers
7.5 Multi-Electron-Beam Mask Writers
7.6 Optical Mask Writers
7.7 Resists for Mask Making
7.8 Etching
7.9 Pellicles
7.10 Mask-Defect Inspection and Repair
Problems
References

Chapter 8 Confronting the Diffraction Limit
8.1 Off-Axis Illumination
8.2 Optical Proximity Effects
8.3 The Mask-Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF)
8.4 Phase-Shifting Masks
8.5 Putting It All Together
Problems
References

Chapter 9 Metrology
9.1 Linewidth Measurement
     9.1.1 Linewidth measurement using scanning electron microscopes
     9.1.2 Scatterometry
     9.1.3 Electrical linewidth measurement
9.2 Measurement of Overlay
Problems
References

Chapter 10 Immersion Lithography and the Limits of Optical Lithography
10.1 Immersion Lithography
10.2 The Diffraction Limit
10.3 Improvements in Optics
10.4 Maximum Numerical Aperture
10.5 The Shortest Wavelength
10.6 Improved Photoresists
10.7 Flatter Wafers
10.8 How Low Can k1 Go?
10.9 How Far Can Optical Lithography Be Extended?
10.10 Multiple Patterning
10.11 Interferometric Lithography
Problems
References

Chapter 11 Lithography Costs
11.1 Cost-of-Ownership
     11.1.1 Capital costs
     11.1.2 Consumables
     11.1.3 Mask costs
     11.1.4 Rework
     11.1.5 Metrology
     11.1.6 Maintenance costs
     11.1.7 Labor costs
     11.1.8 Facilities costs
11.2 Mix-and-Match Strategies
Problems
References

Chapter 12 Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
12.1 Background and Multilayer Reflectors
12.2 EUV Lithography System Overview
12.3 EUV Masks
12.4 Sources and Illuminators
12.5 EUV Optics
12.6 EUV Resists
Problems
References

Chapter 13 Alternative Lithography Techniques
13.1 Proximity X-ray Lithography
13.2 Electron-Beam Direct-Write Lithography
     13.2.1 Single-beam direct-write systems
     13.2.2 Multiple-electron-beam direct-write systems
     13.2.3 Cell-projection lithography
     13.2.4 Scattering-mask electron-projection lithography
13.3 Ion-Projection Lithography
13.4 Imprint Lithography
13.5 Directed Self-Assembly
Problems
References

Appendix A Coherence
Problems
References

Preface

This new edition of Principles of Lithography is long overdue, since there have been many advances in lithographic technology since the 3rd edition was published in 2010. Since the publication of that earlier edition, EUV lithography has progressed from research to the threshold of high-volume manufacturing. There are now additional insights into the concepts regarding line-edge roughness that were described in previous editions. Mask-making is evolving with the introduction of multi-beam mask writers. As in previous editions, I have tried to emphasize the fundamental principles of lithographic technology, without delving too deeply into particular advanced topics except where such subjects are commonly used by practicing lithographers.

There are many people who supported this new edition. First, I would like to thank the publications staff at SPIE for their patience and support. I would also like to thank the following people who provided figures for this edition: Dr. Michael Lercel of ASML (Fig. 5.2), Dr. Winfried Kaiser of Carl Zeiss (Fig. 5.30), Dr. Alain Diebold of SUNY Polytechnic (Fig. 9.15), Dr. Lei Sun of Metalenz (Figs. 3.37 and 9.8), Dr. William Hinsberg of Columbia Hill Technical Consulting (Fig. 12.33), Dr. Erik Hosler of GLOBALFOUNDRIES (Fig. 12.19), Dr. Jim Farrell and Ms. Theresa Chavez of AMD (figure of a Ryzen microprocessor in Chapter 1), Ms. Cherry Tang of JSR (Fig. 3.11), Mr. Rob Crowell of TEL (Fig. 3.13), Dr. Uzodinma Okoroanyanwu of the University of Massachusetts (Fig. 3.17), Dr. Hans Loeschner of IMS (Fig. 7.17), Mr. Tom Newman of AMAT (Fig. 7.18), and Dr. Ivan Pollentier of IMEC (Fig. 3.4). Mr. Peter Buck of Mentor Graphics provided the information in Table 7.6.

In addition, I would like to thank the following people for permission to use figures from their publications: Dr. Juan DiPablo of the University of Chicago (Fig. 4.24), Dr. Xuemei Chen of KLA (Fig. 9.23), Prof. Glenn Fredrickson of the University of California at Santa Barbara (Fig. 13.20), Dr. Sergey Babin of aBeam Technologies (Fig. 9.9), Dr. Yulu Chen of KLA (RuSi reflectance), Dr. John Biafore of KLA (Fig. 12.24), Dr. Patrick Naulleau of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Fig. 3.49), Dr. Lieve van Look of imec (Fig. 12.13), and Mr. Matthias Ruhm of GLOBALFOUNDRIES (Fig. 6.12), and Dr. Sudharshanan Raghunathan of ASML (Fig. 12.31).

Also to be thanked are several people who shared information that was incorporated into the book: Mr. Ernesto Abruna of ZYGO for references on interferometers; Dr. Martin Tschinkl of AMTC for information on mask fabrication; Dr. Obert Wood on background information on EUV lithography; Dr. Feixiang Luo for information on implant resists; Dr. Anindarupa Chunder of Applied Materials on information regarding molecular sizes; Dr. Elmar Platzgummer of IMS Nanofabrication for information on electron beam write tools; Dr. Shuo Zhao of Hermes Microvision for information on EUV lithography targets for specific process layers; Dr. Gian Lorusso of imec for information on SEM measurements of LER; Dr. Jing Jiang of Applied Materials for feedback on Chapter 3; Dr. Richard Farrell of Tokyo Electron for explanations regarding DSA and material for Fig. 13.19; and Dr. Ryan Del Re and Mr. Sung Yong Bae of GLOBALFOUNDRIES for information on resist filtering.

Finally, I would like to thank my wonderful wife, Laurie Lauchlan, for her continuing support.

Harry J. Levinson
March 2019


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