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Spie Press Book

Basic Optical Engineering for Engineers and Scientists
Author(s): Haiyin Sun
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Book Description

This book on practical optical engineering addresses the needs of engineers and scientists who did not specialize in the field but who need to quickly familiarize themselves with it for their projects. The text briefly introduces the most basic optics before describing various optical components, optical devices and systems, lasers, laser optics and devices, optic fibers, opto-electrical devices, optical designs, and optical assemblies. The performance specifications of some optical components representing today’s technologies are also provided. Rather than present manual numerical calculations and raytracings (which are complex, time consuming and often inaccurate), the book describes how to use computers and optical software to perform these tasks.

Book Details

Date Published: 2 January 2019
Pages: 424
ISBN: 9781510622050
Volume: PM294

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

Preface

1 Geometrical Optics
1.1 General Comments
1.2 Snell's Law
1.3 Total Internal Reflection
1.4 Paraxial Approximation
1.5 Lenses
     1.5.1 Lens types
     1.5.2 Positive lenses
     1.5.3 Negative lenses
     1.5.4 Cardinal points
     1.5.5 Nodal points
1.6 Rays and Planes
     1.6.1 Tangential planes and tangential rays
     1.6.2 Sagittal planes, sagittal rays, and skew rays
1.7 Stops and Pupils
     1.7.1 Definitions
     1.7.2 Example 1: a schematic microscope
     1.7.3 Example 2: a schematic microscope with two additional apertures
     1.7.4 Example 3: a real double Gauss lens
     1.7.5 Single-lens model of a complex lens
1.8 Analytical Modeling of a Lens and Rays
     1.8.1 Some comments
     1.8.2 Rules of sign for lens focal length and surface radius of curvature
     1.8.3 Derivation of the paraxial focal length for a lens
     1.8.4 Derivation of the thin lens equation for a thin lens
     1.8.5 Derivation of the focal length of two thin lenses
     1.8.6 Application examples of the thin lens equation for a positive lens
     1.8.7 Application examples of the thin lens equation for a negative lens
1.9 Lateral and Axial Magnifications of Lenses
     1.9.1 Definition of lateral magnifications and axial magnifications
     1.9.2 Schematic examples of an image formed by a positive lens
     1.9.3 Schematic examples of an image formed by a negative lens
     1.9.4 Distortion of a 3D image formed by a perfect lens
1.10 Mirrors
     1.10.1 Reflection law
     1.10.2 Mirror equation: lateral and axial magnifications
1.11 Mirror Imaging
     1.11.1 Planar mirror imaging
     1.11.2 Convex mirror imaging
     1.11.3 Concave mirror imaging
1.12 Optical Aberrations
     1.12.1 Spherical aberration
     1.12.2 Coma
     1.12.3 Astigmatism
     1.12.4 Color aberrations
     1.12.5 Field curvatures
     1.12.6 Wavefront errors and optical path difference
     1.12.7 How to read an OPD diagram
1.13 Evaluation of Image Quality
     1.13.1 Image resolution: Rayleigh criterion
     1.13.2 US Air Force resolution test chart
     1.13.3 Image resolution: contrast transfer function
     1.13.4 How to read a CTF diagram
     1.13.5 Image resolution: modulation transfer function
     1.13.6 Effect of sensor pixel size: Nyquist sampling theorem
     1.13.7 Image distortion
1.14 Illumination Optics versus Imaging Optics
1.15 Radiometry
     1.15.1 Lambert's cosine law
     1.15.2 Light-collecting power of a lens
     1.15.3 Inverse square law
     1.15.4 A point illuminated by a circular Lambertian source
     1.15.5 A working plane illuminated by a point source: the cos4(μ) off-axis relation
     1.15.6 Etendue and radiance conservation
     1.15.7 Radiometry and photometry
     1.15.8 Blackbody
References

2 Wave Optics
2.1 Wave Equation
2.2 Polarization
     2.2.1 Definition
     2.2.2 Linear and random polarization
     2.2.3 Elliptical and circular polarizations
2.3 Reflectance and Transmittance of an Optical Interface
     2.3.1 Reflectance and transmittance
     2.3.2 Brewster's angle and total reflection
     2.3.3 Phase change in reflections
2.4 Interference
     2.4.1 Two-wave interference
     2.4.2 Multiwave interference
2.5 Diffraction
     2.5.1 Single-slit diffraction
     2.5.2 Circular diffraction
     2.5.3 Comparison with a Gaussian pattern
References

3 Gaussian Beam Optics
3.1 Gaussian Beam Equations
3.2 Beam Size Characteristics
3.3 Beam Wavefront Characteristics
3.4 Intensity and Power
3.5 Graphic Explanations of Laser-Beam-Propagation Characteristics
3.6 Thin Lens Equation for a Real Laser Beam
3.7 Collimating and Focusing: Maximum and Minimum Focusing Distance
3.8 Two Examples of Focusing or Collimating Laser Beams
     3.8.1 Focusing a He-Ne laser beam
     3.8.2 Collimating a laser diode beam
     3.8.3 Focusing a Gaussian beam versus focusing a planar wave
References

4 Optical Materials
4.1 Properties 89
     4.1.1 Refractive index
     4.1.2 Abbe number
     4.1.3 Transmission spectral range
     4.1.4 Deviation of partial dispersion
     4.1.5 Refractive-index temperature dependence
     4.1.6 Thermal expansion
     4.1.7 Chemical stabilities
     4.1.8 Density
     4.1.9 Mechanical and electrical properties
     4.1.10 Melting temperature
     4.1.11 Price
     4.1.12 Availability
4.2 Optical Glasses
     4.2.1 Glass types
     4.2.2 Glass brands
4.3 Optical Polymers
4.4 UV Optical Materials
4.5 IR Optical Materials
4.6 Mirror Substrates
4.7 Crystals
     4.7.1 Crystals for making optical components
     4.7.2 Crystals for opto-electrical devices and nonlinear applications
References

5 Optical Coatings
5.1 Metallic Coatings
5.2 Dielectric Coatings
5.3 Antireflection Coatings
5.4 High-Reflection Coatings
5.5 Beamsplitting Coatings
5.6 Polarizing Coatings
5.7 Spectral Coatings
5.8 Electrical Conductive Coatings
References

6 Optical Components
6.1 Lenses
     6.1.1 Lens specifications
     6.1.2 Spherical lenses
     6.1.3 Singlets, doublets, and triplets
     6.1.4 Aspheric surfaces
     6.1.5 Aspheric lenses
     6.1.6 Cylindrical lenses
     6.1.7 Gradient-index lenses
     6.1.8 Fresnel lenses
     6.1.9 Diffractive lenses
     6.1.10 Lens materials
6.2 Mirrors
     6.2.1 Mirror types and specifications
     6.2.2 Metallic mirrors and dielectric (dichroic) mirrors
     6.2.3 Spectral mirrors
     6.2.4 Spherical mirrors
     6.2.5 Elliptical mirrors
     6.2.6 Parabolic mirrors
     6.2.7 Hyperbolic mirrors
6.3 Prisms
     6.3.1 General comments
     6.3.2 Dispersion prisms
     6.3.3 Right-angle prisms
     6.3.4 Corner reflectors
     6.3.5 Penta prisms
     6.3.6 Dove prisms
     6.3.7 Pechan prisms
     6.3.8 Anamorphic prisms
6.4 Non-Polarizing Beamsplitters
     6.4.1 General comments
     6.4.2 Cubic non-polarizing beamsplitters
     6.4.3 Plate non-polarizing beamsplitters
     6.4.4 Pellicle non-polarizing beamsplitters
     6.4.5 Polka-dot non-polarizing beamsplitters
6.5 Polarizing Beamsplitters
     6.5.1 General comments
     6.5.2 Typical performances
6.6 Polarizers
     6.6.1 Birefringent polarizers
     6.6.2 Wire-grid polarizers
     6.6.3 Thin film polarizers
6.7 Spectral Filters
     6.7.1 Dielectric coating filters
     6.7.2 Colored-glass filters
6.8 Wave Plates
     6.8.1 Working principle
     6.8.2 Crystal-quartz wave plates
     6.8.3 Achromatic and tunable wave plates
6.9 Attenuators
6.10 Diffusers
6.11 Diffraction Gratings
     6.11.1 General description
     6.11.2 Grating equation
     6.11.3 Dispersion power
     6.11.4 Blazing angle
     6.11.5 Grating efficiency
     6.11.6 Grating types 153
6.12 Optical Fibers
     6.12.1 General description
     6.12.2 Numerical aperture
     6.12.3 Mode structures in a cylindrical waveguide
     6.12.4 V-number
     6.12.5 Single-mode fibers
     6.12.6 Multimode fibers
     6.12.7 Modal dispersion
     6.12.8 Mode field diameter
     6.12.9 Attenuation
     6.12.10 Polarization
     6.12.11 Fiber bundles for image delivery
     6.12.12 Fiber-bundle and liquid light guides
     6.12.13 Fiber adaptors, couplers, and lab supplies
6.13 Photodetectors
     6.13.1 General comments
     6.13.2 Responsivity and quantum efficiency
     6.13.3 Parameters
     6.13.4 Noise equivalent power and specific detectivity
     6.13.5 UV detectors
     6.13.6 Visible and near-IR detectors
     6.13.7 RGB sensors
     6.13.8 IR detectors
     6.13.9 Photomultiplier tubes
6.14 Light Sources
     6.14.1 Illumination light sources
     6.14.2 Spectral lamps
     6.14.3 Light-emitting laser diodes
References

7 Commonly Used Imaging Lenses
7.1 Specifications
     7.1.1 Focal length
     7.1.2 Field of view, image size, and working distance
     7.1.3 Image quality
     7.1.4 Spectral range
     7.1.5 Transmission and illumination uniformity
     7.1.6 Magnification
     7.1.7 Depth of field
     7.1.8 Focus adjustment
     7.1.9 Zooming
     7.1.10 F-number and power-collection capability of lenses
7.2 Magnifiers
7.3 Eyepieces
     7.3.1 General description
     7.3.2 Specifications
7.4 Objectives
     7.4.1 General description
     7.4.2 Specifications
7.5 Microscopes
7.6 Telescopes
     7.6.1 Refractive telescopes
     7.6.2 Reflective telescopes
     7.6.3 Catadioptric telescopes
7.7 Binoculars
7.8 Gun Scopes
7.9 Camera Lenses
     7.9.1 F/2.8, 12-mm-focal-length lens
     7.9.2 Cellphone camera lens
     7.9.3 Focusable camera lens
     7.9.4 6X zoom camera lens
7.10 Projection Lenses
7.11 Inspection Lenses
7.12 Endoscopes
     7.12.1 Rigid endoscope
     7.12.2 Flexible endoscope
7.13 Human Eyes
     7.13.1 Photopic curve
     7.13.2 Focal length and pupil size
     7.13.3 Visual field
     7.13.4 Visual acuity
References

8 Lasers
8.1 General Comments
8.2 Working Principle
     8.2.1 Planck relation
     8.2.2 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
     8.2.3 Gain medium, three- and four-level systems, and population inversion
     8.2.4 Pumping sources
     8.2.5 Resonant cavity and threshold condition
     8.2.6 Standing waves
     8.2.7 Cavity stability
8.3 Laser Specifications
     8.3.1 Wavelength and tunability
     8.3.2 Power and energy: continuous, pulsed, or tunable
     8.3.3 Longitudinal modes
     8.3.4 Transverse modes
     8.3.5 Linewidth
     8.3.6 Coherent length
     8.3.7 Q-factor and Q-switching
     8.3.8 Mode-locking
8.4 Gas Lasers
     8.4.1 General description
     8.4.2 Summary
8.5 Solid State Lasers
     8.5.1 General description
     8.5.2 Summary
     8.5.3 Solid laser cavities and pumping methods
     8.5.4 Frequency doubling
8.6 Laser Diodes
     8.6.1 General description
     8.6.2 Single-TE-mode cavity structure
     8.6.3 Multi-TE-mode cavity structure
     8.6.4 Laser diode packages and modules
     8.6.5 Three special types of laser diodes and devices
8.7 Optical Fiber Lasers
8.8 Other Types of Lasers
8.9 Laser Safety
References

9 Laser Optics and Devices, and Manipulable Laser Beams
9.1 Laser Mirrors
     9.1.1 Surface qualities and coatings
     9.1.2 Mirror laser-damage threshold
9.2 Laser Lenses
     9.2.1 Surface qualities and coatings
     9.2.2 Laser lens materials
     9.2.3 Lens laser-damage threshold
9.3 Focusing or Collimating Laser Beams
     9.3.1 Geometrical optics modeling
     9.3.2 Focusing a beam: three examples
     9.3.3 Collimating laser beams
     9.3.4 Effects of lens shape and orientation
     9.3.5 Effects of aperture truncation on laser beams
9.4 Low-Power, Single-TE-Mode Laser Diode Optics
     9.4.1 Beam characteristics
     9.4.2 Lenses for collimating or focusing
     9.4.3 Spatial evolution of collimated laser diode beams
     9.4.4 Far-field pattern of collimated beams
     9.4.5 Circularization and astigmatism correction
9.5 High-Power, Wide-Stripe Laser Diode Optics
     9.5.1 Beam characteristics
     9.5.2 Collimating a wide-stripe laser diode beam
     9.5.3 Slow axis collimator
     9.5.4 Fast axis collimator
9.6 Laser Beam Shaping Optics
     9.6.1 Laser line generator
     9.6.2 Flat-top beam shaper
     9.6.3 Beam expanders
     9.6.4 Making a linear light source rectangular
9.7 Laser Devices
     9.7.1 Pigtail laser modules: coupling a single-TE-mode laser beam into a single-mode optical fiber
     9.7.2 Laser diode power stabilization
     9.7.3 Laser diode temperature stabilization
     9.7.4 Laser rangefinders
     9.7.5 Laser detection cards and viewing scopes
     9.7.6 Spatial filters
     9.7.7 Laser speckle
9.8 Opto-electrical Devices and Other Devices
     9.8.1 Basic principles
     9.8.2 Electro-optic amplitude modulators
     9.8.3 Electro-optic phase modulators
     9.8.4 Acousto-optic modulators
     9.8.5 Frequency mixing
     9.8.6 Liquid crystal devices
     9.8.7 Chopper modulators
     9.8.8 Beam-steering devices
References

10 Instruments to Characterize Laser Beams
10.1 Laser Beam Profilers
     10.1.1 Camera-based beam profilers
     10.1.2 Scanner-based beam profilers
10.2 Laser Power Meters and Energy Meters
     10.2.1 Specifications
     10.2.2 Photodetector properties and selection
10.3 Wavelength Meters
     10.3.1 General comments
     10.3.2 Fizeau wavemeters
     10.3.3 Michelson interferometer wavemeters
     10.3.4 Other wavelength measurement methods
References

11 Instruments for Optical Measurements
11.1 Wavefront Modeling
     11.1.1 General comments
     11.1.2 Aberration polynomials
     11.1.3 Zernike polynomials
     11.1.4 Wavefront polynomials
     11.1.5 Interferograms
11.2 Wavefront Analyzers
     11.2.1 Point diffraction interferometer
     11.2.2 Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors
     11.2.3 Fizeau interferometers
     11.2.4 Shearing interferometers
     11.2.5 Twyman-Green interferometers
     11.2.6 Mach-Zehnder interferometers
11.3 Spectral Analyzers
     11.3.1 Monochromators
     11.3.2 Scanning Fabry-Perot interferometers
11.4 Other Optical Instruments
     11.4.1 Measuring microscopes
     11.4.2 Autocollimators
     11.4.3 Radiometers and photometers
References

12 Computer-Aided Optical Modeling
12.1 General Comments
12.2 Commercially Available Optical Design Software
     12.2.1 CODE V
     12.2.2 OpticStudio (Zemax)
     12.2.3 Other types of optical software
12.3 Sequential Raytracing Modeling
     12.3.1 General comments
     12.3.2 Set optical parameters
     12.3.3 Modeling a single lens
     12.3.4 Modeling a mirror
     12.3.5 Modeling coatings 313
     12.3.6 Modeling a multi-element lens
12.4 Non-sequential Raytracing Modeling
     12.4.1 General comments
     12.4.2 Modeling a light source
     12.4.3 Modeling a detector
     12.4.4 Modeling a lens
     12.4.5 Detector viewer and raytracing
     12.4.6 Modeling a mirror
     12.4.7 Modeling a dispersion prism
     12.4.8 Modeling a cube beamsplitter with a beamsplitting coating
12.5 Physical Optics Modeling
     12.5.1 Modeling a laser diode beam
     12.5.2 Modeling a laser beam propagating through an equi-convex spherical lens
     12.5.3 Modeling a laser beam propagating through an aspheric laser diode lens
References

13 Computer-Aided Optical Design
13.1 Optical Engineering and Design
     13.1.1 Optical engineering versus electrical engineering
     13.1.2 The unique nature of optical design
     13.1.3 Design process: merit function
     13.1.4 Design process: optimization
13.2 Design a Focusing Single Lens
     13.2.1 Set a Lens Data box
     13.2.2 Construct a merit function
     13.2.3 Optimize
     13.2.4 Use aspheric surfaces
13.3 Design a Focusing Doublet
     13.3.1 Set a Lens Data box
     13.3.2 Construct a merit function and optimize
13.4 Design a Simple Eyepiece
     13.4.1 Set system parameters
     13.4.2 Set a Lens Data box
     13.4.3 Construct a merit function
     13.4.4 Optimize
     13.4.5 Design results
     13.4.6 Design strategies
13.5 Design a Simple Microscope Objective
     13.5.1 Set system parameters
     13.5.2 Set a Lens Data box
     13.5.3 Construct a merit function
     13.5.4 Optimization and design results
13.6 Build a Polygon

14 Lens Fabrication, Tolerances, Procurement, Inspection, and Mounting
14.1 Optical Specifications and Standards
14.2 Lens Fabrication Methods
     14.2.1 Spindle grinding and polishing
     14.2.2 Diamond turning
     14.2.3 Molding
14.3 Fabrication Tolerances
     14.3.1 Tolerances of the surface curvature radius and surface sag difference
     14.3.2 Decenter, tilt, and wedge between the two surfaces of a lens
     14.3.3 Optical fabrication tolerance chart
14.4 Purchasing Optical Components
     14.4.1 Off-the-shelf optical component vendors
     14.4.2 Custom component vendors
     14.4.3 Custom component price estimation
     14.4.4 Lens drawings and data sheet for custom components
     14.4.5 Review inspection report
     14.4.6 Incoming inspection
14.5 Measuring the Surface Radius of Curvature, Surface Quality, and Lens Physical Size
     14.5.1 Profilometers
     14.5.2 Test plates
     14.5.3 Interferometer methods
     14.5.4 Test aspheric surfaces
     14.5.5 Measuring surface quality
     14.5.6 Measuring physical size
14.6 Methods for Measuring the Lens Focal Length
     14.6.1 Transverse magnification method
     14.6.2 Nodal slide method
     14.6.3 Measuring the focal length of a negative lens
14.7 Methods for Measuring the Image Resolution of a Lens
     14.7.1 USAF resolution test chart
     14.7.2 Siemens star chart
     14.7.3 Slant edge
14.8 Principles of Mounting Lenses
     14.8.1 Passive mounting
     14.8.2 Total indicator of runout
     14.8.3 Active mounting
14.9 Techniques for Mounting Lenses
     14.9.1 Mounting a laser diode beam-collimating lens
     14.9.2 Passive method of centering a lens
     14.9.3 Setting the axial spacing between two lenses
     14.9.4 Fixing the lens position
     14.9.5 Aligning a lens to a cell
14.10 Handling and Cleaning Optical Components
     14.10.1 Handling components
     14.10.2 Cleaning components
References

Preface

Optical engineering is increasingly used in industrial, scientific, medical, and military applications, among others. Engineers and scientists need to have certain knowledge in order to effectively apply optics to their projects; however, most of them did not major in optical engineering. Their busy schedules do not allow them to spend a lot time to study the details of optical engineering. Their interests are often limited to quickly gaining the most basic concepts and identifying the right optical components, devices, instruments, and approaches for their applications. What they need is an information source that can promptly provide them the very practical knowledge about a specific part of optical engineering.

In the past several decades, about ten notable books on optical engineering have been published. Several recently published books are available, e.g., Refs. 1-5. The first three approach the topic in a gradual way with detailed explanations and are excellent textbooks for students majoring in optical engineering, as well as for engineers and scientists who have enough time and interest to dig deep into the subject. Fischer covers optical system design with practical design examples and also addresses basic optics and optical components. Smith is a comprehensive book that covers many technical details about classical optical engineering. Both Fischer and Smith are great references for optical engineers and scientists. However, none of these books discuss lasers, laser optics and devices, and fiber optics, even though lasers and optical fibers are now conventional optical components. Smith devotes a section to optical fibers but treats optical fiber as a bulk glass waveguide; most of the important features of optical fibers are not covered.

Basic Optical Engineering for Engineers and Scientists introduces the very practical parts of optical engineering to address the needs of those engineers and scientists who are not specialized in the subject but need to quickly learn something about it for their projects. The text briefly introduces the most basic optics, but most of it describes various optical components, optical devices and systems, lasers, laser optics and devices, optical fibers, optoelectrical devices, optical designs, and optical assemblies. The performance specifications of some optical components that represent current technologies are also provided.

This book tries to avoid detailed manual numerical calculations and raytracings because these techniques are complex, time consuming, and often inaccurate. Instead, computers and optical software are used to perform these tasks because computers and optical software are widely available and the results provided by programs are much more accurate than the results obtained manually. There are no proofs or problem-solving exercises. These features are intended to let readers find the content relevant to their interests and get the results they need. This book tries to cover most areas of modern optical engineering but not in depth.

Haiyin Sun
December 2018


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