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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry
Author(s): Arnold Daniels
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Book Description

The Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry covers all aspects of IR optics, including monochromatic and chromatic optical aberrations as well as important concepts such as depth of focus, depth of field, hyperfocal distance, warm shields, aspheric surfaces, and kinoforms. It also provides a comprehensive introduction to the optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of infrared materials as well as the essentials of radiometry and sources necessary for the quantitative understanding of infrared signatures and flux transfer, spectral atmospheric transmittance, and path radiance. This Field Guide also serves as a companion to the Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Third Edition.


Book Details

Date Published: 3 October 2018
Pages: 134
ISBN: 9781510618602
Volume: FG39

Table of Contents
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Glossary of Symbols

Introduction
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Infrared Concepts

Optics
Imaging Concepts
Magnification Factors
Thick Lenses
Stops and Pupils
F-number and Numerical Aperture
Field of View
Depth of Focus and Depth of Field
Hyperfocal Distance
Combination of Lenses
Afocal Systems and Refractive Telescopes
Afocal Reflective Telescopes
Cold Stop Efficiency and Field Stop
The Warm Shield Concept
Image Quality
Understanding Optical Aberrations
Wavefront and Transverse Ray Aberrations
Wavefront and Seidel Aberrations
Spherical Aberration
Coma
Astigmatism and Field Curvature
Distortion
Diffraction of the Aberrated Wavefront
Aberration Tolerance
Strehl Ratio
Plane-Parallel Surfaces: Optical Windows
Chromatic Aberrations
Aspheres
Kinoforms
Image Anomalies in Infrared Systems

Infrared Materials
Optical Properties of Specular Light
Regions of Strong Absorption in Infrared Materials
Spectral Transmittance: Origin and Model
Effect of Temperature on Emittance
Birefringence
Material Dispersion
Optical Scatter
Mechanical Properties
Stress Concentration
Hardness
Fracture Toughness and Weibull Statistics
Safety Factor
Thermal Properties
Thermal Shock
Infrared Material Properties at 300 K
Infrared Material Trade Names
Zinc Sulfide and Zinc Selenide
Tuftran®
Sapphire
AlON and Spinel
Birefringence
Material Dispersion
Optical Scatter
Yttria
Silicon and Germanium
Gallium Arsenide
CVD Diamond
Chalcogenide Glasses
Antireflection Coatings on High-Index Substrates
AR Surfaces Based on Nanostructure Arrays
Pressure Windows: Calculation
Mirrors

Radiometry and Sources
Solid Angle
Radiometry
Radiometric Terms
Flux Transfer
Flux Transfer for Image-Forming Systems
Source Configurations
Blackbody Radiators
Planck's Radiation Law
Stefan–Boltzmann's Law & Wien's Displacement Laws
Rayleigh–Jeans & Wien's Radiation Laws
Exitance contrast
Emissivity
Kirchhoff's Law
Emissivity of Various Common Materials
Radiometric Measure of Temperature
Collimators
Spectral Atmospheric Transmittance
Path Radiance

Equation Summary

Bibliography

Index


The amount of new material that was added to the second edition of the Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs (2010) was rather extensive. As a result, the third edition (2018) is accompanied by this "companion" publication, the Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry.

These Field Guides cover a broad range of technical topics necessary to understand the principles of modern infrared technology. They combine numerous engineering disciplines that are essential for the development of infrared systems. The mathematical equations and physical concepts in these Field Guides are in sequence. Therefore, although these publications are sold separately, it is highly recommended that readers acquire the two books as a set.

The Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry includes a detailed explanation of monochromatic and chromatic optical aberrations as well as a comprehensive introduction to the optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of infrared materials. It provides important concepts such as depth of focus, depth of field, hyperfocal distance, warm shields, aspheric surfaces, kinoforms, optical scatter, etc. It also includes an overview of the best and most common infrared glasses and mirror substrates. This Field Guide also covers the essentials of radiometry necessary for the quantitative understanding of infrared signatures and flux transfer, spectral atmospheric transmittance, and path radiance.

I would like to acknowledge and express my gratitude to my professor and mentor Dr. Glenn Boreman for his guidance, experience, and friendship. The knowledge that he passed on to me during my graduate studies at CREOL ultimately contributed to the creation of this book.

I extend my sincere appreciation to Dr. Mel Friedman, NVESD, who took on the onerous task of improving and clarifying the TTP metric concepts and its contents. I would also like to thank Mr. Thomas Haberfelde for his efforts in reviewing the drafts of the manuscripts as well as Alexander Daniels and Dara Burrows for their skillful editing assistance.

Above all, I voice a special note of gratitude to my kids Becky and Alex, and my wife Rosa for their love and support.

Lastly, I would particularly like to thank you, the reader, for selecting these books and taking the time to explore the topics related to this motivating and exciting field. I trust that the contents of these Field Guides will prove interesting and useful to engineers and scientists working in one of the various infrared fields.

These Field Guides are dedicated to the memory of my father and brothers.

Arnold Daniels
September 2018


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