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Spie Press Book

Introduction to Infrared System Design
Author(s): William L. Wolfe
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Book Description

This Tutorial Text focuses on the optics and detector aspects of infrared system design. It introduces the terminology, processes, and instrument design techniques available to engineers today. Design examples are based on real problems investigated by the author during his 30 years of experience as an industrialist, teacher, and consultant.

Book Details

Date Published: 28 March 1996
Pages: 148
ISBN: 9780819421067
Volume: TT24

Table of Contents
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Preface xi
Symbols and Notation xiii
1 Introduction 1
2 Applications Overview 3
3 Review of Geometric Optics 5
3.1 Rays, Beams, and Pencils 5
3.2 The Laws of Reflection and Refraction 5
3.3 Gaussian Optics 6
3.4 Paraxial Optics 7
3.5 Stops and Pupils 7
3.6 Optical Speed 8
3.7 Aberrations 8
3.8 Combinations of Aberrations 10
4 Review of Radiometry 11
4.1 Angle and Solid Angle 11
4.2 Spectral Terms 12
4.3 Radiometric Terms 12
4.4 Radiometric Transfer 14
5 Detector Parameters 23
5.1 Detector Descriptions 23
5.2 Detector Noises 24
5.3 Detector Types 26
5.4 Detector Arrays 27
6 The Infrared System 29
6.1 Description of the Infrared System 29
6.2 Sensitivity Equations 30
6.3 The Emitted and Reflected Scene 39
7 Atmospheric Transmission and Radiation 41
7.1 Overview 41
7.2 High-Resolution Spectra 41
7.3 Calculational Methods 41
7.4 Procedures 43
7.5 MODTRAN 44
8 Evaluation of the Infrared Scene 45
8.1 Evaluation of the Scene SNR 45
8.2 The Nature of the Infrared Scene 46
9 Bandwidth and Scan Strategies 56
9.1 Information Bandwidth 56
9.2 Time Delay and Integration 58
9.3 Optimizing Scan Patterns 61
9.4 The Bow-Tie Effect 62
9.5 The Palmer Scan 63
9.6 Effective Noise Bandwidth 63
10 Optical Materials 64
10.1 Types of Materials 64
10.2 Selection Criteria 64
10.3 Reflection and Transmission 64
10.4 Absorption 67
10.5 Refractive Materials 67
10.6 Mirrors 69
10.7 Glass vs. Metals and Composites 71
11 Some Optical Systems 72
11.1 Single-Mirror Systems 72
11.2 Two-Mirror Systems 74
11.3 Three-Mirror Systems 76
11.4 Schmidt Systems 80
11.5 Bouwers-Maksutov Systems 81
11.6 Reflecting Relays 81
12 Scanning Systems 83
12.1 The Plane Parallel Plate 83
12.2 Refracting Polygon Scanners 84
12.3 Risley Prism Scanners 85
12.4 Rotating Flats and Axe-Blade Reflecting Scanners 87
12.5 The Reflecting Polygon Scanner (Carousel) 88
12.6 The Kennedy Split-Aperture Scanner 88
12.7 Image-Space Scanners 89
12.8 Narcissus 90
13 Real-Time Imager Descriptions 91
13.1 Contrast and Modulation 91
13.2 Spatial Frequency 91
13.3 Modulation Transfer Functions 92
13.4 Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference 93
13.5 Limitations and Other Figures of Merit 93
13.6 MTFs for Diffraction-Limited Systems 94
14 Design Examples 95
14.1 The Design Process 95
14.2 A Night-Driving Imager 95
14.3 ICBM Interceptors 96
14.4 A Peacekeeper Detector 98
14.5 Summary 100
Appendix A: Figure Programs 101
Appendix B: Example Programs 112
Bibliography 126
Index 130

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