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Spie Press Book

Helmet-Mounted Displays: Design Issues for Rotary-Wing Aircraft
Author(s): Clarence E. Rash
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Book Description

The incorporation of new technology into aviation has had an enormous impact. Advances in microelectronics, stealth technology, engine design, and electronic sensors and displays have converted simple aircraft into formidable flying machines. In this book, recognized experts in aviation helmet-mounted displays summarize 25 years of knowledge and experience in HMD visual, acoustic, and biodynamic performance, and user issues such as sizing, fitting, and emergency egress.

Book Details

Date Published: 25 January 2001
Pages: 258
ISBN: 9780819496003
Volume: PM93

Table of Contents
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The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this book are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision.


Contributors ii
Foreword ix
Preface xi
Part One Introduction
Chapter 1 Introductory Overview 3
Clarence E. Rash
Helmet-Mounted Display Evolution 3
Helmet-Mounted Displays Overview 11
References 28
Chapter 2 Image Sources 31
Clarence E. Rash, Melissa H. Ledford, and John C. Mora
Introduction 33
Cathode Ray Tubes 34
Flat Panel Technologies 38
Summary 45
Lasers 49
References 50
Chapter 3 Optical Designs 51
William E. McLean
Introduction 55
Determining Field-of-View 55
Optical Aberrations 58
Types 60
Partially Silvered, Dichroic, and Holographic Combiners 75
References 78
Chapter 4 Visual Coupling 75
Clarence E. Rash
Introduction 79
Tracking Systems 79
System Lag (delay) 85
Roll Compensation 88
Vibration 89
Sensor Switching 91
References 93
Part Two Design Issues
Chapter 5 Optical Performance 93
Clarence E. Rash and William E. McLean
Introduction 101
Image Quality 102
Field-of-View 133
Visual Field 137
Magnification 139
See-Through Luminous/Spectral Transmittance 140
Exit Pupil 141
Extraneous Reflections 142
Monocular/Biocular/Binocular Considerations 143
Monochrome vs. Color 151
References 154
Appendix 165
Chapter 6 Visual Performance 153
William E. McLean and Clarence E. Rash
Introduction 169
Visual Acuity 170
Contrast Sensitivity 170
Depth Perception and Stereopsis 175
Visual Illusions and Spatial Disorientation 178
Visual Problems 179
References 182
Chapter 7 Biodynamics 167
B. Joseph McEntire
Helmet Performance 185
Mass and CM 186
Impact Attenuation 196
Frangibility 202
Individual Fitting Systems 204
Retention 208
Stability 210
Compatibility 212
Visors and Visor Assemblies 213
References 215
Chapter 8 Acoustical Performance 197
Ben T. Mozo
Introduction 219
Sound Attenuation 223
Speech Intelligibility (SI) 225
Operational Assessment 227
Weight (Mass) of Helmet/Communications 229
3-D Audio 230
References 232
Chapter 9 Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Issues 211
Joseph R. Licina
Introduction 235
Manpower and Personnel Integration
(MANPRINT) Program 235
User Adjustments 240
Anthropometry 244
Fitting 247
Egress 249
Equipment Compatibility 249
References 254
Part Three HMD Performance Assessment
Chapter 10 Test and Evaluation 233
Clarence E. Rash, John C. Mora, and Melissa H. Ledford
Introduction 261
Laboratory 262
In-Flight 263
Summary 265
References 266
Glossary of HMD Terms 239
Notes on Contributors 247
Index 251

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