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Spie Press Book

Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis, Second Edition
Author(s): Valery Tuchin
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Book Description

This second edition covers the intensive growth in tissue optics--in particular, the field of tissue diagnostics and imaging--that has occurred since 2000. As in the original edition, Part I describes fundamentals and basic research, and Part II presents instrumentation and medical applications. The extensive new material includes results on tissue optical property measurements, including polarized light interaction with turbid tissues; an overview of new polarization imaging and spectroscopy techniques, optical computed tomography (OCT) developments and applications; updates on controlling tissue optical properties, and the optothermal and optoacoustic interaction of light with tissues; and descriptions of fluorescence, nonlinear spectroscopies, and inelastic light scattering.

Book Details

Date Published: 18 September 2007
Pages: 882
Volume: PM166

Table of Contents
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NOMENCLATURE
ACRONYMS
PREFACE
Part I. AN INTRODUCTION TO TISSUE OPTICS
1. Optical Properties of Tissues with Strong (Multiple) Scattering
1.1. Propagation of continuous light in tissues
1.1.1. Basic principles and major scatterers and absorbers
1.1.2. Theoretical description
1.1.3. Monte Carlo simulation techniques
1.2. Short pulse propagation in tissues
1.2.1. Basic principles and theoretical background
1.2.2. Principles and instruments for time-resolved spectroscopy and imaging of tissues
1.2.3. Coherent backscattering
1.3. Diffuse photon-density waves
1.3.1. Basic principles and theoretical background
1.3.2. Principles of frequency-domain spectroscopy and imaging of tissues
1.4. Propagation of polarized light in tissues
1.4.1. Introduction
1.4.2. Tissue structure and anisotropy
1.4.3. Light scattering by a particle
1.4.4. Polarized light description and detection
1.4.5. Light interaction with a random single scattering media
1.4.6. Vector radiative transfer equation
1.4.7. Monte Carlo simulation
1.4.8. Strongly scattering tissues and phantoms
1.5. Optothermal and optoacoustic interactions of light with tissues
1.5.1 Basic principles and classification
1.5.2 Photoacoustic method
1.5.3 Time-resolved optoacoustics
1.5.4 Grounds of OA tomography and microscopy
1.5.5 Optothermal radiometry
1.5.6 Acousto-optical interactions
1.5.7 Thermal effects
1.5.8. Sonoluminescence
1.5.9 Prospective applications and measuring techniques
1.5.10 Conclusion
1.6. Discrete-particle model of tissue
1.6.1. Introduction
1.6.2. Refractive-index variations of tissue
1.6.3. Particle size distributions
1.6.4. Spatial ordering of particles
1.6.5. Scattering by densely packed particle systems
1.7. Fluorescence and inelastic light scattering
1.7.1. Fluorescence
1.7.2 Multi-photon fluorescence
1.7.3 Vibrational and Raman spectroscopies
1.8. Tissue phantoms
1.8.1. Introduction
1.8.2. Concepts of phantom constructing
1.8.3. Examples of designed tissue phantoms
1.8.4. Examples of whole organ models
2. Methods and Algorithms for the Measurement of the Optical Parameters of Tissues
2.1. Basic principles
2.2 Integrating sphere technique
2.3. Kubelka-Munk and multi-flux approach
2.4. The inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method
2.5. Inverse Monte Carlo method
2.6. Spatially-resolved and OCT techniques
2.7 Direct measurement of the scattering phase function
2.8. Human tissue optical properties estimates
2.9. Determination of optical properties of blood
2.10. Measurements of tissue penetration depth and light dosimetry
2.11. Refractive index measurements
3. Optical Properties of Eye Tissues
3.1. Optical models of eye tissues
3.1.1. Eye tissues structure
3.1.2. Tissue ordering
3.2. Spectral characteristics of eye tissues
3.3. Polarization properties
4. Coherent Effects in the Interaction of Laser Radiation with Tissues and Cell Flows
4.1. Formation of speckle structures
4.2. Interference of speckle fields
4.3. Propagation of spatially modulated laser beams in a scattering medium
4.4. Dynamic light scattering
4.4.1. Quasi-elastic light scattering
4.4.2. Dynamic speckles
4.4.3. Full-field speckle technique-LASCA
4.4.4. Diffusion wave spectroscopy
4.5. Confocal microscopy
4.6. Optical coherence tomography (OCT)
4.7. Second harmonic generation (SHG)
5. Controlling of Optical Properties of Tissues
5.1 Fundamentals of tissue optical properties controlling and brief review
5.2 Optical immersion by exogenous optical clearing agents
5.2.1 Principles of the optical immersion technique
5.2.2 Water transport
5.2.3 Tissue swelling and hydration
5.3. Optical clearing of fibrous tissues
5.3.1 Spectral properties of immersed sclera
5.3.2 Scleral in vitro frequency-domain measurements
5.3.3 Scleral in vivo measurements
5.3.4 Dura mater immersion and agent diffusion rate
5.5. Optical clearing of skin
5.5.1 Introduction
5.5.2 In vitro spectral measurements
5.5.3 In vivo spectral reflectance measurements
5.5.4 In vivo frequency-domain measurements
5.5.5. OCT imaging
5.5.6. OCA delivery, skin permeation and reservoir function
5.6 Optical clearing of gastric tissue
5.6.1. Spectral measurements
5.6.2. OCT imaging
5.7 Other prospective optical techniques
5.7.1. Polarization measurements
5.7.2. Confocal microscopy
5.7.3. Fluorescence detection
5.7.4. Two-photon scanning fluorescence microscopy
5.7.5. The second harmonic generation
5.8 Cell and cell flows imaging
5.8.1 Blood flow imaging
5.8.2 Optical clearing of blood
5.8.3 Cell studies
5.9 Applications of tissue immersion technique
5.9.1 Glucose sensing
5.9.2 Precision tissue photodisruption
5.10 Other techniques of tissue optical properties control
5.10.1 Tissue compression and stretching
5.10.2 Temperature effects and tissue coagulation
5.10.3 Tissue whitening
5.11. Conclusion
Part II. LIGHT SCATTERING METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS
6. Continuous wave and time-resolved spectrometry
6.1. Continuous wave spectrophotometry
6.1.1. Techniques and instruments for in vivo spectroscopy and imaging of tissues
6.1.2. Example of a CW imaging system
6.1.3. Example of a tissue spectroscopy system
6.2. Time- and frequency- domain spectroscopy and tomography of tissues
6.2.1. Time-domain techniques and instruments
6.2.2. Frequency-domain techniques and instruments
6.2.3. Phased-array technique
6.2.4. In vivo measurements, detection limits, and examples of clinical study
6.3. Light scattering spectroscopy
7. Polarization-Sensitive Techniques
7.1. Polarization imaging
7.1.1. Transillumination polarization technique
7.1.2. Backscattering polarization imaging
7.2. Polarized reflectance spectroscopy of tissues
7.2.1. In-depth polarization spectroscopy
7.2.2. Superficial epithelial layer polarization spectroscopy
7.3. Polarization microscopy
7.4. Digital photoelasticity measurements
7.5. Fluorescence polarization measurements
7.6. Conclusion
8. Coherence-Domain Methods and Instruments for Biomedical Diagnostics and Imaging
8.1. Photon-correlation spectroscopy of transparent tissues and cell flows
8.1.1. Introduction
8.1.2. Cataract diagnostics
8.1.3. Blood and lymph flow monitoring in microvessels
8.2. Diffusion-wave spectroscopy and interferometry: measurement of blood microcirculation
8.3. Blood flow imaging
8.4. Interferometric and speckle-interferometric methods for the measurement of biovibrations
8.5. Optical speckle topography and tomography of tissues
8.6. Methods of coherent microscopy
8.7. Interferential retinometry and blood sedimentation study
9. Optical Coherence Tomography and Heterodyning Imaging
9.1. OCT
9.1.1. Introduction
9.1.2. Conventional (time-domain) OCT
9.1.3. Two-wavelength fiber OCT
9.1.4. Ultrahigh resolution fiber OCT
9.1.5. Frequency-domain OCT
9.1.6. Doppler OCT
9.1.7. Polarization sensitive OCT
9.1.8. Differential phase-sensitive OCT
9.1.9. Full-field OCT
9.1.10. Optical coherence microscopy
9.1.11. Endoscopic OCT
9.1.12. Speckle OCT
9.2. Optical heterodyne imaging
9.3. Summary
CONCLUSION
GLOSSARY 1. PHYSICS, STATISTICS, AND ENGINEERING
Sources
GLOSSARY 2. MEDICINE, BIOLOGY, and CHEMISTRY
Sources
REFERENCES
INDEX

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

This is the second edition of the tutorial on Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis published in 2000. The last five years, since printing of the first edition of the book, were characterized by the intensive growth of research and development in tissue optics, in particular in the field of tissue diagnostics and imaging. Further developments of light-scattering techniques for quantitative evaluation of optical properties of normal and pathological tissues and cell ensembles were described. New results on theoretical and experimental investigations into light transport in tissues and methods for solving direct and inverse scattering problems for random media with multiple scattering and quasi-ordered media were received.

A few specific fields, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarization-sensitive technologies, very promising for optical medical diagnostics and imaging, were enormously developed last few years. Optical clearing method, based on reversible reduction of tissue scattering due to refractive index matching of scatterers and ground matter also was of great interest for research and application last time. Further developments of Raman and vibrational spectroscopies as well as multiphoton microscopy in application to studies morphology and functioning of living cells and tissues were provided by many research groups. This new edition of the book is conceptually the same as the first one. It is also divided into two parts: Part I describes tissue optics fundamentals and basic research and Part II presents optical and laser instrumentation and medical applications. Author has corrected noticed misprints, has updated references and added some new results mostly on tissue optical properties measurements (chapter 2) and polarization light interaction with turbid tissues (section 1.4). Recent results on polarization imaging and spectroscopy techniques (chapter 7), as well as on OCT developments and applications (chapter 9) are also overviewed. Materials on controlling of tissue optical properties (chapter 5), optothermal and optoacoustic interactions of light with tissues (section 1.5) are updated. A brief description of fluorescence, nonlinear spectroscopies, and inelastic light scattering is done in chapter 1.

I am grateful to Ms. Sharon Streams for suggestion to prepare the second edition of the tutorial and for her assistance in editing and production of the book.

I am very thankful to attendees of my short courses "Coherence, Light Scattering, and Polarization Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis," "Tissue Optics and Spectroscopy," and "Tissue Optics and Controlling of Tissue Optical Properties," which I have giving during SPIE Photonics West Symposia, SPIE/OSA European Conferences on Biomedical Optics, and OSA CLEO/QELS Conferences last five years, for their stimulating questions, fruitful discussions, and critical evaluations of presented materials. Their responses were very valuable for preparation of this edition.

My joint chairing with Joseph A. Izatt and James G. Fujimoto of the SPIE Conference on Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine also was very helpful. The original part of this work was supported within the Russian and international research programs by grant N25.2003.2 of President of Russian Federation "Supporting of Scientific Schools," grant N2.11.03 "Leading Research-Educational Teams," contract No. 40.018.1.1.1314 "Biophotonics" of the Ministry of Industry, Science and Technologies of RF, grant REC-006 of CRDF (U.S. Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union) and the Russian Ministry of Education, the Royal Society grant for a joint project between Cranfield University (UK) and Saratov State University, and grants of National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC).

I greatly appreciate the cooperation, contribution, and support of all my colleagues from Optics and Biomedical Physics Division of Physics Department and Research-Educational Institute of Optics and Biophotonics of Saratov State University, especially A.N. Bashkatov, I.V. Fedosov, E.I. Galanzha, E.A. Genina, I.L. Maksimova, I.V. Meglinski, V.I. Kochubey, V.P. Ryabukho, A.B. Pravdin, G.V. Simonenko, Yu.P. Sinichkin, S.S. Ul'yanov, D.A. Yakovlev, and D.A. Zimnyakov. I would like to thank all my numerous colleagues and friends all over the world for collaboration and sending materials which were used in this tutorial and made my work much easy, especially P.E. Andersen, J.F. de Boer, Z. Chen, P.M.W. French, J.G. Fujimoto, V.M. Gelikonov, P. Gupta, C.K. Hitzenberger, J.A. Izatt, S.L. Jacques, A. Kishen, S.J. Kirkpatrick, A. Knuttel, J.R. Lakowicz, K.V. Larin, G.W. Lucassen, Q. Luo, B.R. Masters, K. Meek, G. Mueller, F.F.M. de Mul, L.T. Perelman, A. Podoleanu, A.V. Priezzhev, F. Reil, J. Rodriguez, H. Schneckenburger, A.M. Sergeev, A.N. Servov, N.M. Shakhova, B.J. Tromberg, L.V. Wang, R.K. Wang, A.J. Welch, A.N. Yaroslavskaya, I.V. Yaroslavsky, P. Zhakharov, and V.P. Zharov.

I express my gratitude to my wife, Natalia, and all my family, especially to daughter Nastya and grandkids Dasha, Zhenya, and Stepa, for their indispensable support, understanding, and patience during my writing the book.

Valery Tuchin
December 2005


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