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Spie Press Book

Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
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Book Description

An SPIE Special Collection

In the drive to maintain scaling of semiconductor devices according to Moore's law, extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is a leading candidate among next-generation lithography (NGL) technologies to succeed 193-nm optical lithography employing water immersion. Today, leading-edge semiconductor companies are manufacturing their final generation of devices using 193-nm immersion lithography with single patterning per layer. While device scaling is possible with double- or multiple-patterning immersion lithography, single-patterning NGL technologies will provide tighter overlay capability, better critical dimension uniformity, and potentially a lower cost. Currently, EUVL is being developed by these very companies for insertion into high volume manufacturing (HVM) within the next five years. This special collection of EUVL papers will ease the reader's overwhelming task of sorting through volumes of technical papers to find good and original papers on specific topics of interest.

These selected papers were originally published in the Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS and Proceedings of SPIE.

Book Details

Date Published: 6 December 2012
Pages: 572
Volume: CL2SC

Table of Contents
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Special Collection on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

Table of Contents

Special Collection on Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography
Vivek Bakshi and Anthony Yen


From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML's NXE platform
Hans Meiling, Wim de Boeia, Frank Bornebroek, Noreen Harned, Ivo de Jong, Peter Krüz, Martin Lowisch, Henk Meijer, David Ockwell, Rudy Peeters, Eelco van Setten, Judon Stoeldraijer, Christian Wagner, Stuart Young, and Ron Kool
Proc. SPIE 8322, 83221G (2012)

Extreme-ultraviolet source specifications: tradeoffs and requirements and requirements
Roel Moors, Vadim Banine, Geert Swinkels, and Frans Wortel
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021102 (2012)

Sources: Discharge- and Laser-Priduced Plasma Sources

New type of discharge-produced plasma source for extreme ultraviolet based on liquid tin jet electrodes
Konstantin Koshelev, Vladimir Krivtsun, Vladimir Ivanov, Oleg Yakushev, Alexey Chekmarev, Vsevolod Koloshnikov, Evegenii Snegirev, and Viacheslav Medvedev
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021103 (2012)

Laser-produced plasma versus laser-assisted discharge plasma: physics and echnology of extreme ultraviolet light sources
Guido Schriever, Olivier Semprez, Jeroen Jonkers, Masaki Yoshioka, and Rolf Apetz
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021104 (2012)

Extreme-ultraviolet light source development to enable pre-production mask inspection
Matthew J. Partlow, Matthew M. Besen, Paul A. Blackborow, Ron Collins, Deborah Gustafson, Stephen F. Horne, and Donald K. Smith
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021105 (2012)

Brilliance scaling of discharge sources for extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation for metrology applications
Markus Benk and Klaus Bergmann
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021106 (2012)

High-radiance extreme-ultraviolet light
Peter Choi, Sergey V. Zakharov Raul Aliaga-Rossel, Aldrice Bakouboula, Otman Benali, Philippe Bove, Michele Cau, Grainne Duffy, Osamu Iwase, Blair Lebert, Keith Powell, Ouassima Sarroukh, Clement Zaepffel, and Vasily S. Zakharov
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021107 (2012)

Optical designs of grazing incidence collector for extreme unltraviolet lithography
Fabio E. Zocchi and Entico Benedetti
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 6(64), 043002 (2007)

Development of laser-produced plasma sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography
Gerry O'Sullivan and Bowen Li
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021108 (2012)

Tin laser-produced plasma as the light source for extremen unltraviolet lithography high-volume manufacturing: history, ideal plasma, present status, and prospects
Toshihisa Tomie
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021109 (2012)

Development of stabale extreme-ultraviolet sources for use in lithography exposure systems
Igor V. Fomenkov, Bruno La Fontaine, Daniel Brown, Imtiaz Ahmad, Peter Baumgart, Norbert R. B�wering, David C. Brandt, Alexander N. Bykanov, Silvia De Dea, Alex I. Ershov, Nigel R. Farrar, Dan J. Golich, Mike J. Lercel, David W. Myers, Chiraq Rajyaguru, Shailendra N. Srivastava, Yezheng Tao, and Georgiy O. Vaschenko
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021110 (2012)

Laser-produced plasma-based extreme-ultraviolet light source technology for high-volume manufacturing extreme-ultraviolet lithography
Junichi Fujimoto, Tamotsu Abe, Satoshi Tanaka, Takeshi Ohta, Tsukasa Hori, Tatsuya Yanagida, Hiroaki Nakarai, and Hakaru Mizoguchi
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021111 (2012)

Laser-produced plasma light source for technology for extreme-ultraviolet lithography applications
Reza S. Abhari, Bob Rollinger, Andrea Z. Giovannini, Oran Morris, Ian Henderson, and Samir S. Ellwi
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021114 (2012)

Scaling of high average power, short pulse CO2lasers
Akira Endo
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10(2), 021113 (2012)

Combined effects of prepulsing and tafget geometry on efficient extreme ultraviolet production from laser produced plasma experiments and modeling
Ahmed Hassanein, Valeryi Sizyuk, Tatyana Sizyuk, and Sivanandan S. Harilal
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 8(4), 033002 (2011)

RZLINE code modleing of distributed tin targets for laser-produced plasma sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation
Konstantin N. Koshelev, Vladimir V. Ivanov, Vladimir G. Novikov, Viacheslav Medvedev, Alexander S. Grushin, and Vladimir M. Krivtsun
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021112 (2012)

Out-of Band Radiation and Spectral Purity Filters

Estimating out-of-band radiation flare levels for extreme ultraviolet lithography
Simi A. George, Patrick P. Naulleau, Senajith Rekawa, Eric Gullikson, and Charles Drew Kemp
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 8(2), 41502 (2012)

Free-standing spectral purity filters for extreme ultraviolet lithography
Nikolay I. Chkhalo, Mikhail N. Drozdov, Evgeny B. Kluenkov, Aleksei Ya. Lopatin, Valerii I. Luchin, Nikolay N. Salashchenko, Nikolay N. Tsybin, Leonid A. Sjmaenok, Vadim E. Banine, and Andrei M. Yakunin
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021115 (2012)

Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources
Chimaobi Mbanaso, Alin Antohe, Horace Bull, Frank Goodwin, Ady Hershcovitch, and Gregory Denbeaux
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021116 (2012)

Source Debris and Its Mitigation

Debris transport analysis at the imtermediate fiocus of an extreme ultraviolet light source
John Sporre and David N. Ruzic
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021117 (2012)

Atomic-hydrogen cleangin of Sn from Mo/Si and DLC/Si extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors
Wouter A. Soer, Maarten M. J. W. van Herpen, Martin J. J. Jak, Peter Gawlitza, Stefan Braun, Nikolay N. Salashchenko, Nikolay I. Chkhalo, and Vadim Y. Banine
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021118 (2012)

Alternative Concepts for EUV Sources

Extreme ultraviolet lasers: principles and potential for next-generation lightography
Juerg E. Balmer, Davide Bleiner, and Felix Staub
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021119 (2012)

Van-de Graaf-based 13.5 nm inverse-Compton light source
John M. J. Madey, Luis R. Elias, and Eric B. Szarmes
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021120 (2012)

Tabletop storage ring MIRRORCLE extreme ultraviolet lithography source
Hironari Yamada, Dorian Minkov, Taichi Hayashi, and Daisuke Hasegawa
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021121 (2012)

Potential of the FLASH free electron laser technology for the construction of a kW-scale light source for next-generation lithography
Evgeny A. Schneidmiller, Vladimir F. Vogel, Hans Weise, and Mikhail V. Yurkov
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021122 (2012)

Source for extreme ultraviolet lithography based on plasma sustaine by millimeter-wave gyrotron radiation
Nikolay I. Chkhalo, Sergei V. Golubev, Dmitry Mansfeld, Nikolay N. Salashchenko, Leonid A. Sjmaenok, and Alexander V. Vodopyanov
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021123 (2012)

Design of high-brightness laser-Compton source for extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths
Kazuyuki Sakaue, Akira Endo, and Masakazu Washio
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11(2), 021124 (2012)


EUVL alternating phase shift mask
Pei-Yang Yan, Alan Myers, Yashesh Shroff, Manish Chandhok, Guojing Zhang, Eric Gullikson, and Farhad Salmassi
Proc. SPIE 7969, 79690G (2011)

Black border with etched multilayer on EIV mask
Norihito Fukugami, Kazuaki Matsui, Genta Watanabe, Takeshi Isogawa, Shinpei Kondo, Yutaka Kodera, Yo Sakata, Shinji Akima, Jun Kotani, Hiroaki Morimoto, and Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2011)

Fully model-based methodology for simultaneous correction of extreme ultraviolet mask shadowing and proximity effects
Philip C. W. Ng, Kuen-Yu Tsai, Yen-Min Lee, Fu-Min Wang, Jia-Han Li, and Alek C. Chen
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10(1), 021124 (2011)

Shadowing effect modeling and compensation for EUV lithography
Hua Song, Lena Zavyalova, Irene Su, James Shiely, and Thomas Schmoeller
Proc. SPIE 7969, 79691O (2011)

Light-shield border imact on the printability of extreme-ultra mask
Takashi Kamo, Kazuo Tawarayama, Yuusuke Tanaka, Yukiyasu Arisawa, Hajime Aoyama, Toshihiko Tanaka, and Osamu Suga
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10(2), 023001 (2011)

Printability and inspectability of defects on the EUV mask for sub-32 nm half pitch HVM application
Sungmin Huh, In-Yong Kang, Sang-Hyun Kim, Hwan-seok Seo, Dongwan Kim, Jooon Park, Seong-Sue Kim, Han-Ku Cho, Kenneth Goldberg, Iacopo Mochi, Tsutomu Shoki, and Gregg Inderhees
Proc. SPIE 7969, 796902 (2011)

Printability of nataive blank defects and programmed defects and their stack structures
Hyuk Joo Kwon, Jenah Harris-Jones, Ranganath Teki, Aaron Cordes, Toshio Nakajima, Iacopo Mochi, Kenneth A. Goldberg, Yuya Yamaguchi, and Hiroo Kinoshita
Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660H (2011)

Mask diffraction analysis and optimization for extreme ultraviolet masks
Andreas Erdmann, Peter Evanschitzky, and Tim Fühner
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 9(1), 013005 (2011)

Mask absorber roughness impact in extreme ultraviolet lithography
Alessandro Vaglio Pret, Roel Gronheid, Trey Graves, Mark D. Smith, and John Biafore
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10(2), 023012 (2011)

Impact of mask topology and multilayer stack on high NA imagin of EUV masks
Johannes Ruoff
Proc. SPIE 7823, 78231N (2010)

Implications of image plane line-edge roughness requirements on extreme ultraviolet mask specificationsact of mask topology and multilayer stack on high NA imagin of EUV masks
Patrick P. Naulleau and Simi A. George
Proc. SPIE 7379, 73970O (2009)

Mask Defect Metrology

Ictinic review of EUV masks
Heiko Feldmann, Johannes Ruoff, Wolfgang Harnisch, and Winfried Kaiser
Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361C (2010)

A study of defects on EUV masks using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection
Sungmin Huh, Liping Ren, David Chan, Stefan Wurm, Kenneth Goldberg, Iacopo Mochi, Toshio Nakajima, Masahiro Kishimoto, Byungsup Ahn, Inyong Kang, Joo-on Park, Kyoungyong Cho, Sang-in Han, and Thomas Laursen
Proc. SPIE 7636, 76360K (2010)

The analysis of EUV mask defects using a wafer defect inspection system
Kyoung-Yong Cho, Joo-On Park, Changmin Park, Young-Mi Lee, In-Yong Kang, Jeong-Ho Yeo, Seong-Woon Choi, and Chan-Hoon Park
Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361E (2010)

Phase defect analysis with actinic full-field EUVL mask blank inspection
Takeshi Yamane, Toshihiko Tanaka, Tsuneo Terasawa, and Osamu Suga
Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660G (2011)

Inspecting EUV mask blanks with a 193-nm system
Joshua Glasser, Stan Stokowski, and Gregg Inderhees
Proc. SPIE 7748, 774808 (2010)

EUV actinic blank inspection tool with a high magnification review mode
Tomohiro Suzuki, Hiroki Miyai, Kiwamu Takehisa, Haruhiko Kusunose, Takeshi Yamane, Tsuneo Terasawa, Hidehiro Watanabe, Soichi Inoue, and Ichiro Mori
Proc. SPIE 8441, 844115 (2012)

An EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaging microscope for lithography generation reaching 8 nm
Kenneth A. Goldberg, Iacopo Mochi, Senajith B. Rekawa, Nathan S. Smith, James B. Macdougall, and Patrick P. Naulleau
Proc. SPIE 7969, 796910 (2011)


Imaging budgets for extreme ultraviolet optics: ready for 22-nm node and beyond
Marc Bienert, Aksel Göhnemeier, Oliver Natt, Martin Lowisch, Paul Gräupner, Tilmann Heil, Reiner Garreis, Koen van Ingen Schenau, and Steve Hansen
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 8(4), 041509 (2009)

Optics for EUV production
Martin Lowisch, Peter Kuerz, Hans-Juergen Mann, Oliver Natt, and and Bernd Thuering
Proc. SPIE 7636, 763603 (2010)

Flare modeling and calculation for EUV optics
M. Shiraishi, T. Oshino, K. Murakami, and H. Chiba
Proc. SPIE 7636, 763629 (2010)

Lateral shearing interferometry for high-resolution EUV opticsl testing
Ryan Miyakawa and Patrick Naulleau
Proc. SPIE 7969, 796939 (2011)

High accuracy EUV reflectometry at large optical components and oblique incidence
Christian Laubis, Frank Scholze, Christian Buchholz, Andreas Fischer, Steven Hesse, Annett Kampe, Jana Puls, Christian Stadelhoff and Gerhard Ulm
Proc. SPIE 7271, 72713Y (2009)

Optics Contamination

Assessment of resist outgassing related EUV optics contamination for CAR and non-CAR material chemistries
I. Pollentier, I. Neira, and R. Gronheid
Proc. SPIE 7972, 797208 (2011)

Complex species and pressure dependence of intensity scaling laws for contamination rates of EUV optics determined by XPS and ellipsometry
S. B. Hilla, N. S. Faradzhev, L. J. Richter, and T. B. Lucatorto
Proc. SPIE 7636, 76360E (2010)

Dependence of contamination rates on key parameters in EUV optics
Yashdeep Khopkar, Petros Thomas, Leonid Yankulin, Rashi Garg, Chimaobi Mbanaso, Alin Antohe, Mihir Upadhyaya, Vimal Kumar Kamineni, Yu-Jen Fan, Gregory Denbeaux, Vibhu Jindal, Andrea Wüest, and Eric Gullikson
Proc. SPIE 7969, 796923 (2011)

Removal of surface contamination from EUV mirrors using low-power downstream plasma cleaning
Christopher G. Morgan, Patrick P. Naulleau, Senajith B. Rekawa, Paul E. Denham, Brian H. Hoef, Michael S. Jones, and Ronald Vane
Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361Q (2010)


Impact of post-litho linewidth roughness smoothing processes on the post-etch patterning result
Philippe Foubert, Alessandro Vaglio Pret, Efrain Altamirano Sanchez, Roel Gronheid
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10(3), 033001 (2011)

LWR reduction by novel lithographic and etch techniques
Shinji Kobayashi, Satoru Shimura, Tetsu Kawasaki, Kathleen Nafus, Shinichi Hatakeyama, Hideo Shite, Eiichi Nishimura, Masato Kushibiki, Arisa Hara,Roel Gronheid, Alessandro Valgio Pret, and Junichi Kitano
Proc. SPIE 7639, 763914 (2010)

CD uniformity improvement for EUV resist process: EUV resolution enhancement layer
Hyun-Woo Kim, Hai-Sub Na, Chang-Min Park, Cheolhong Park, Sumin Kim, Chawon Koh, In-Sung Kim, and Han-Ku Cho
Proc. SPIE 7969, 796916 (2011)

Electron beam-induced freezing of positive tone, EUV resists for directed self-assembly applications
Han-Hao Cheng, Imelda Keen, Anguang Yu, Ya-Mi Chuang, Idriss Blakey, Kevin S. Jack, Michael J. Leeson, Todd R. Younkin, and Andrew K. Whittaker
Proc. SPIE 7970, 79701V (2011)

Interferometric Lithography

New opportunities in interferometric lithography using extreme ultraviolet tabletop lasers
Przemyslaw W. Wachulak, Lukasz Urbanski, Maria G. Capeluto, David Hill, Willie S. Rockward, Claudio Iemmi, Erik H. Anderson, Carmen S. Menoni, Jorge J. Rocca, and Mario C. Marconi
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 8(2), 021206 (2009)

Engineering study of extreme ultraviolet interferometric lithography
Fan Jiang, Yang-Chun Cheng, Artak Isoyan, and Franco Cerrina
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 8(2), 021203 (2009)

Design and analysis of a compact EUC interferometric lithography system
Bruce W. Smith
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 8(2), 021207 (2009)

Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul Scherrer Institut
Vaida Auzelyte, Christian Dais, Patrick Farquet, Detlev, Gr�tzmacher, Laura J. Heyderman, Feng Luo, Sven Olliges, Celestino Padeste, Pratap K. Sahoo, Tom Thomson, Andrey Turchanin, Christian David, Harun H. Solak
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 8(2), 021204 (2009)

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