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Spie Press Book

Optical Design for Biomedical Imaging
Author(s): Rongguang Liang
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Book Description

Designing an efficient imaging system for biomedical optics requires a solid understanding of the special requirements of the optical systems for biomedical imaging and the optical components used in the systems. However, a lack of reference books on optical design (imaging and illumination) for biomedical imaging has led to some inefficient systems. This book fills the gap between biomedical optics and optical design by addressing the fundamentals of biomedical optics and optical engineering, and biomedical imaging systems. The first half provides a brief introduction to biomedical optics and then covers the fundamentals of optics, optical components, light sources, detectors, optical imaging system design, and illumination system design. This also includes important issues related to biomedical imaging, such as autofluorescence from optical materials. The second half of the text covers various biomedical imaging techniques and their optical systems, along with design examples.


Book Details

Date Published: 24 January 2011
Pages: 510
ISBN: 9780819483690
Volume: PM203

Table of Contents
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Preface
List of Acronyms
1.0 Introduction to Biomedical Optical Imaging
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Optical Signals in Biomedical Optical Imaging
1.2.1 Optical properties of tissues
1.2.1.1 Refractive index
1.2.1.2 Absorption and absorption coefficients
1.2.1.3 Scattering and scattering coefficients
1.2.1.4 Anisotropy
1.2.1.5 Reduced scattering coefficient and penetration depth
1.2.2 Optical signals
1.2.2.1 Reflection, absorption, and scattering
1.2.2.2 Polarization effect
1.2.2.3 Fluorescence
1.2.2.4 Diseases and the optical properties of tissues
1.2.3 Tissues in optical systems
1.3 Biomedical Optical Imaging Techniques
References
2.0 Introduction to Optical Design
2.1 Introduction to Optical Design
2.1.1 Paraxial optics
2.1.2 Newtonian and Gaussian equations
2.1.3 Stop and pupil
2.2 Optical Properties
2.2.1 Numerical aperture
2.2.2 Depth of focus/field
2.2.3 Lagrange invariant
2.3 Radiometry of Optical Systems
2.3.1 Basic concepts
2.3.2 Radiometric approximations
2.3.3 Radiometry of optical systems
2.4 Introduction to Aberrations
2.4.1 Spherical aberration
2.4.2 Coma
2.4.3 Astigmatism
2.4.4 Field curvature
2.4.5 Distortion
2.4.6 Chromatic aberrations
2.5 Seidel Aberrations
2.6 Performance Evaluations
2.6.1 Transverse-ray aberration
2.6.2 Spot diagram
2.6.3 Encircled/ensquared energy
2.6.4 Modulation transfer function
2.6.5 Root-mean-square wavefront error/spot radius
2.6.6 Strehl ratio
2.7 Correction of Aberrations
2.7.1 Lens bending
2.7.2 Lens splitting
2.7.3 Lens compounding
2.7.4 Aplanatic surface
2.7.5 Aspherical surface
2.7.6 Optical materials
2.7.7 Stop shift
2.7.8 Symmetry principle
2.7.9 Field flatteners
2.8 Optical Design
2.8.1 Determine the system specifications
2.8.2 Select a starting design
2.8.3 Optimization
2.8.3.1 Establish variables, constraints, and merit functions
2.8.3.2 Optimization and evaluation
References
3.0 Optical Fibers in Biomedical Imaging
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Fundamentals of Optical Fibers
3.3 Light Propagation in the Fiber
3.3.1 Single-mode fibers
3.3.2 Multimode fiber
3.3.3 Fiber tips
3.3.4 Fiber bundles
3.3.5 Fiber transmission
3.3.6 Autofluorescence of fiber bundles
3.4 Illumination Using Fiber Bundles
3.5 Fiber-Optic Imaging Systems
3.5.1 Introduction
3.5.2 Optical properties of imaging fiber bundles
3.5.3 Depth of focus/field
3.5.4 Optical properties of imaging systems using fiber bundles
References
4.0 Microscope Optics
4.1 Microscope Optics
4.1.1 Introduction
4.1.2 Key specifications
4.1.3 Key parameters
4.1.3.1 Numerical aperture
4.1.3.2 Magnification
4.1.3.3 Resolution
4.1.3.4 Depth of field
4.1.4 Key components
4.1.4.1 Objective lens
4.1.4.2 Tube lens
4.1.4.3 Eyepiece
4.1.4.4 Light source
4.1.4.5 Illumination system
4.1.4.6 Imaging detector
4.2 Objective Lenses
4.2.1 Introduction
4.2.2 Aberration characteristics of objective lenses
4.2.2.1 Spherical aberration
4.2.2.2 Coma
4.2.2.3 Field curvature and astigmatism
4.2.2.4 Distortion
4.2.2.5 Chromatic aberrations
4.2.3 Design techniques
4.2.3.1 Aplanatic surfaces
4.2.3.2 Liquid immersion
4.2.3.3 Correction of field curvature
4.2.4 Objective lens design
4.2.4.1 Low-power achromats
4.2.4.2 Medium-power achromats
4.2.4.3 High-power achromats
4.2.4.4 Oil-immersion objective lenses
4.2.4.5 Plan achromats
4.2.4.6 Plan apochromats
4.2.4.7 Long-working-distance objective lenses
4.2.4.8 Objectives with correction lenses
4.2.4.9 Reflective objective lenses
4.3 Tube Lens
4.4 Eyepiece
4.5 Illumination System
4.5.1 Bright-field illumination
4.5.1.1 Critical illumination
4.5.1.2 Kohler illumination
4.5.2 Dark-field illumination
References
5.0 Fluorescence Imaging
5.1 Introduction to Fluorescence
5.1.1 Fluorescence process
5.1.2 Excitation and emission spectra
5.1.3 Intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence
5.2 Fluorescence Imaging Techniques
5.2.1 Single-band fluorescence imaging
5.2.2 Multicolor fluorescence imaging
5.2.3 Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging
5.2.4 Fluorescence lifetime imaging
5.3 Components in Fluorescence Imaging Systems
5.3.1 Light source
5.3.2 Fluorescence filters
5.3.3 Illumination optics
5.3.4 Light collection/imaging optics
5.3.5 Detector
5.4 Fluorescence Filters
5.4.1 Types of fluorescence filters
5.4.2 Absorption filters
5.4.3 Thin-film filters
5.4.4 Specifications of thin-film filters
5.4.5 Filters in fluorescence imaging
5.4.5.1 Requirements for filters in fluorescence imaging
5.4.5.2 Filter selection
5.5 Fluorescence Imaging Systems
5.5.1 Lensless fluorescence imaging systems
5.5.2 Microimaging systems
5.5.3 Macrofluorescence imaging systems
5.5.4 Scanning fluorescence imaging systems
5.5.5 Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging systems
5.5.6 Multicolor fluorescence imaging systems
5.5.7 Hybrid imaging systems
5.6 Optical Designs of Fluorescence Imaging Systems
5.6.1 System consideration
5.6.2 Illumination system design
5.6.3 Detection systems
5.6.3.1 General requirement
5.6.3.2 Optical Materials
5.6.3.2.1 Transmission of optical materials
5.6.3.2.2 Autofluorescence of optical materials
5.6.3.3 Design of a fluorescence microscope objective lens
References
6.0 Polarization Imaging
6.1 Basics of Polarized Light
6.2 Polarized Light Interactions with Tissues
6.3 Polarization Imaging Systems in Biomedical Imaging
6.3.1 Conventional polarization imaging
6.3.2 Orthogonal polarized spectral imaging
6.3.3 Polarization ratio imaging
6.3.4 Spectral polarization difference imaging
6.3.5 Polarized light spectroscopy
6.4 Polarization Elements
6.4.1 Polarizers
6.4.1.1 Absorptive polarizers
6.4.1.2 Beamsplitting polarizers
6.4.1.3 Birefringent polarizers
6.4.1.4 Wire-grid polarizers
6.4.1.5 Circular polarizers
6.4.1.6 Special polarizers
6.4.2 Retarders
6.4.2.1 Birefringent retarders
6.4.2.2 Achromatic retarders
6.4.2.3 Variable retarders
6.4.3 Selection of polarization elements
6.4.3.1 Polarizers
6.4.3.2 Retarders
6.5 Polarization Effects in Optical Systems
6.5.1 Polarization effects of refraction/reflection
6.5.2 Polarization effects of coating
6.5.3 Birefringence
6.6 Optical Design and System Analysis
6.6.1 General considerations
6.6.2 Polarization ray tracing
References
7.0 Confocal Imaging
7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 Principle of confocal imaging
7.1.2 Resolution
7.2 Basic Components and Requirements
7.2.1 Light source
7.2.2 Illumination system
7.2.3 Objective lens
7.2.4 Beamsplitter
7.2.5 Pinhole
7.2.6 Pinhole lens
7.2.7 Scanner
7.2.7.1 Galvanometer scanner
7.2.7.2 Polygonal scanner
7.2.7.3 Acousto-optical deflector
7.2.7.4 MEMS scanner
7.2.7.5 Rotating wedge scanner
7.3 Confocal Scanning Systems
7.3.1 Stage scan
7.3.2 Beam scan
7.3.2.1 Introduction
7.3.2.2 Beam scan with a Nipkow disk
7.3.2.3 Beam scan with a spatial light modulator
7.3.2.4 Beam scan with scan mirrors
7.3.3 Relay systems
7.4 Optical Design of the Objective Lens
7.4.1 Aberrations in the objective lens
7.4.2 Design considerations of the objective lens
7.4.4 Design Examples
7.4.4.1 Objective lenses for microarray scanners
7.4.4.2 Achromatic objective lens in the near-IR
7.4.4.3 Objective lens for UV and visible light
7.5 Fiber-Optic Confocal Imaging Systems
7.5.1 Single-fiber confocal imaging
7.5.2 Fiber-bundle confocal imaging
7.5.2.1 Introduction
7.5.2.2 Optical design
References
8.0 Endoscope Optics
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Basic Optics for Endoscopes
8.2.1 Illumination and imaging optics
8.2.2 Rigid endoscopes
8.2.3 Flexible endoscopes
8.2.4 Video endoscopes
8.3 Relay Lenses
8.3.1 Conventional relay systems
8.3.2 Hopkins rod lens relay
8.3.3 Variations of the Hopkins rod lens
8.4 Objective Lenses
8.4.1 Introduction
8.4.2 Objective lenses with a fixed FOV
8.4.3 Objective lenses with variable fields of view
8.4.4 Design options
8.4.5 Prisms in endoscopic objective lenses
8.5 Illumination Systems
8.5.2 Fiber illumination systems
8.5.3 Illumination systems with fiber bundles and lenses
8.5.4 Illumination with LEDs
8.6 Wireless Endoscopes
8.6.1 Introduction
8.6.2 Imaging system
8.6.3 Illumination systems
References
Index

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