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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Infrared Systems
Author(s): Arnold Daniels
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Book Description

Out of print 09/26/11. Replaced by FG15. This Field Guide is written to clarify and summarize the theoretical principles of infrared technology. It describes the basic elements involving image formation and image quality, radiometry and flux transfer, and explains the figures of merit involving detector performance. It considers the development of search infrared systems, and specifies the main descriptors used to characterize thermal imaging systems. Furthermore, this guide clarifies, identifies, and evaluates the engineering trade-offs in the design of an infrared system.

Book Details

Date Published: 12 October 2006
Pages: 116
Volume: FG09

Table of Contents
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Glossary of Symbols
Introduction
Electromagnetic Spectrum 1
Infrared Concepts 2
Optics
Imaging Concepts 3
Magnification Factors 4
Thick Lenses 5
Stop and Pupils 6
F-number (F/#) & Numerical
Aperture (NA) 7
Field-of-View (FOV) 8
Combination of Lenses 9
Afocal Systems & Refractive
Telescopes 10
Cold Stop Efficiency & Field
Stop 11
Image Quality 12
Image Anomalies in Infrared
System 14
Infrared Materials 15
Material Dispersion 19
Atmospheric Transmittance 20
Radiometry & Sources
Solid Angle 21
Radiometry 22
Radiometric Terms 23
Flux Transfer 25
Source Configurations 27
Collimators 29
Blackbody Radiators 30
Planck Radiation Law 31
Stefan-Boltzmann's Law & Wien's
Displacement Laws 32
Rayleigh-Jeans & Wien's
Radiation Laws & Thermal
Equations in Photon-Derived
Units 33
Exitance contrast 34
Emissivity 35
Kirchhoff's Law 36
Emissivity of Various Common
Materials 37
Radiometric Measure of
Temperature 38
Performance Parameters for Optical Detectors
Infrared Detectors 40
Primary Sources of Detector
Noise 41
Noise Power Spectral Density 42
White Noise 43
Noise Equivalent Bandwidth 44
Shot Noise 46
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: Detector
& BLIP Limits 47
Generation-Recombination Noise 48
Johnson-Noise 49
1/f Noise & Temperature Noise 50
Detector Responsivity 51
Spectral Responsivity 53
Blackbody Responsivity &
K-Factor 54
Noise-Equivalent Power 55
Specific or Normalized
Detectivity 56
Photovoltaic Detectors or
Photodiodes 57
Sources of Noise in PV
Detectors 58
Expressions for D*PV, BLIP,
D**PV, BLIP, and D*PV, JOLI 59
Photoconductive (PC) Detectors 60
Sources of Noise in PC
Detectors 61
Pyroelectric Detectors 62
Bolometers 64
Immersion Optics: Bolometers 66
Thermoelectric Detectors 67
Infrared Systems
Raster Scan Format: Single
Detector 68
Multiple Detector Scan Formats:
Serial Scene Dissection 70
Multiple Detector Scan Formats:
Parallel Scene Dissection 71
Staring Systems 72
Search Systems & Range Equation 73
Noise Equivalent Irradiance 76
Performance Specification:
Thermal Imaging Systems 77
MTF Definitions 78
Optics MTF: Calculations 81
Electronics MTF: Calculations 83
MTF Measurement Setup & Sampling
Effects 84
MTF Measuring Techniques:
PSF & LSF 85
MTF Measuring Techniques:
ESF & CTF 86
MTF Measuring Techniques:
CTF (cont'd) 87
MTF Measuring Techniques
Noise-Like Targets 88
MTF Measuring Techniques
Interferometry 90
Noise Equivalent Temperature
Difference: Calculation 91
NETD Measurement Technique 92
Minimum Resolvable Temperature
Difference 93
MRTD:Calculation 94
MRTD Measurement Technique 95
MRTD Measurement - Automatic
Test 96
Johnson Criteria 97
Notes 99
Bibliography 100

Field Guide to Infrared System Design is written to clarify and summarize the theoretical principles of infrared technology. It is intended as a reference work for the practicing engineer and/or scientist who require effective practical information to design, build, and/or test infrared equipment in a wide variety of applications.

This book combines numerous engineering disciplines necessary for the development of an infrared system. It describes the basic elements involving image formation and image quality, radiometry and flux transfer, and explains the figures of merit involving detector performance. It considers the development of search infrared systems, and specifies the main descriptors used to characterize thermal imager systems. Furthermore, this guide clarifies, identifies, and evaluates the engineering tradeoffs in the design of an infrared system.

I would like to acknowledge and express my gratitude to my professor and mentor Dr. Glenn Boreman for his guidance, experience, and friendship. The knowledge that he passed on to me during my graduate studies at CREOL ultimately contributed to the creation of this book. I voice a special note of gratitude to my kids Becky and Alex for their forbearance, and to my wife Rosa for her love and support.

Finally, I would particularly like to thank you, the reader, for selecting this book and taking the time to explore the topics related to this motivating and exciting field. I truly hope that you will find the contents of this book interesting and informative.

Arnold Daniels


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