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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Visual and Ophthalmic Optics
Author(s): Jim Schwiegerling
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Book Description

Visual optics requires an understanding of both biology and optical engineering. This Field Guide assembles the anatomy, physiology, and functioning of the eye, as well as the engineering and design of a wide assortment of tools for measuring, photographing, and characterizing properties of the surfaces and structures of the eye. Also covered are the diagnostic techniques, lenses, and surgical techniques used to correct and improve human vision.

Book Details

Date Published: 2 November 2004
Pages: 124
ISBN: 9780819456298
Volume: FG04

Table of Contents
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Glossary x
Ocular Function 1
Eyeball 1
Cornea 2
Retina 3
Photoreceptors 4
Retinal Landmarks 5
Properties of Ocular Components 6
Accommodation 7
Pupil Size and Dark Adaptation 8
Transmission and Reflectance 9
Axes of the Eye 10
Stiles-Crawford Effect 11
Photopic V(lambda) and Scotopic V'(lambda) Response 12
Eye Movements 13
Vergence 14
Paraxial Schematic Eye 15
Arizona Eye Model 16
Aberrations 17
Visual Acuity 19
Visual Acuity and Eye Charts 20
Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) 21
Emmetropia and Ametropia 23
Far and Near Points 24
Presbyopia 25
Correction of Ocular Errors 26
Spectacles: Single Vision 26
Spectacle Lenses 27
Lensmeter 28
Spherical and Cylindrical Refractive Error 29
Prismatic Error 30
Astigmatic Decomposition 31
Special Ophthalmic Lenses 32
Variable Prisms and Lenses 33
Contact Lenses 34
Radiuscope 35
Spectacle and Contact Lens Materials 36
Surgical Correction of Refractive Error 37
Cataract Surgery 38
Ophthalmic Instrumentation and Metrology 39
Purkinje Images 39
Fluorescein Imaging 40
Indocyanine Green Imaging 41
Keratometry 42
Corneal Topography 43
Corneal Topography: Axial Power 44
Corneal Topography: Instantaneous Power 45
Anterior Segment Imaging 46
Wavefront Sensing: Shack-Hartmann Sensing 47
Wavefront Sensing: Tscherning Aberrometry 48
Wavefront Sensing: Retinal Raytracing 49
Wavefront Sensing: Spatially Resolved Refractometry 50
Wavefront Sensing: Reconstruction 51
Zernike Polynomials: Wavefront Sensing Standard 53
Zernike Polynomials: Cartesian Coordinates 54
Zernike Polynomials: Useful Formulas 55
Ophthalmoscopy 57
Retinal Imaging 58
Field of View and Perimetry 59
Retinoscopy 60
Autorefraction 61
Badal Optometer and Maxwellian View 62
Common Ophthalmic Lasers 63
Eye Safety: Laser Sources 64
Eye Safety: Non-laser Sources 65
Color 66
Photometry 66
Colorimetry: RBB and CIE XYZ Systems 67
Colorimetry: Chromaticity Diagram 68
Colorimetry: Primaries and Gamut 69
Colorimetry: CIELUV Color Space 70
Colorimetry: CIELAB Color Space 71
Chromatic Adaptation 72
L, M, and S Cone Fundamentals 73
Appendices 74
Aspheric and Astigmatic Surfaces 74
Differential Geometry 75
Trigonometric Identities 76
CIE Photopic V(lambda) and Scotopic V'(lambda) Response 77
1931 CIE 2° Color Matching Functions 78
1964 CIE 10° Color Matching Functions 80
Stockman & Sharpe 2° Cone Fundamentals 82
Incoherent Retinal Hazard Functions 85
Zernike Polynomials: Table in Polar Coordinates 87
Zernike Polynomials: Table in Cartesian Coordinates 88
Equation Summary 90
Bibliography 96
Index 101


Visual optics is a scientific field that brings together many disciplines. Optical engineering and biology are interwoven to produce the most sophisticated imaging system known. The human visual system functions over a broad range of conditions, adapts to its surroundings and is capable of quickly processing complex visual information at enviable speeds. Many of the great names of optical physics such as Newton, Maxwell, Young, Helmholtz, and Alvarez have all made significant contributions to the field of visual optics. This book assembles much of the anatomy, physiology, and functioning of the eye, as well as the engineering and design of a wide assortment of tools for measuring, photographing and characterizing properties of the surfaces and structures of the eye. Finally, descriptions of our attempts to correct vision, reverse the aging process, and improve on Mother Nature are given.

I would like to express my gratitude to several colleagues for their help with this book. First, I'd like to thank John Greivenkamp for granting the opportunity to write this book and for his mentoring and friendship. Second, I'd like to thank Joseph Miller, whose enthusiasm for engineering is contagious, and whose ideas are always elegant. Finally, I'd like to thank Charlie Campbell for passing on a bit of his wisdom and knowledge and for providing an outlet for my babbling about Zernike polynomials.

Jim Schwiegerling
Dept of Ophthalmology and Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona

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