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Spie Press Book

Optical Thin Films: User Handbook
Author(s): James D. Rancourt
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Book Description

Practical, user-oriented reference for engineers who must incorporate and specify coatings for filters, antiglare effects, polarization, or other purposes in optical or electro-optical systems design. It focuses on preparation techniques and characteristics of commercially available products and provides information needed to determine what type of filter is needed to solve a particular problem, what its limitations are, and how to care for it.

Book Details

Date Published: 1 August 1996
Pages: 304
ISBN: 9780819465092
Volume: PM37

Table of Contents
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PREFACE / xi
1 INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL THIN FILMS / 1
1.1. Interference of Light / 2
1.1.1. Coherent Addition of Amplitudes / 10
1.1.2. Layer Thickness Specifications / 11
1.1.3. Nomenclature / 12
1.1.4. Index of Refraction and Dispersion / 13
1.1.5. Absorbing and Nonabsorbing Filters / 13
1.2. Spectral Ranges and Materials Section / 15
1.3. Angle of Incidence Effects / 16
1.3.1. Snell's Law / 16
1.3.2. Optical Invariant / 17
1.3.3. Critical Angle / 17
1.3.4. Polarization / 18
1.3.5. Brewster's Angle / 20
1.3.6. Effective Indices / 20
1.3.7. Birefringence and Differential Phase Shift Coatings / 21
1.3.8. Steep Surfaces / 23
2 DEPOSITION TECHNOLOGY / 24
2.1. Coating Processes / 24
2.1.1. Vacuum Evaporation / 24
2.1.2. Sputtering / 26
2.1.3. Flash Evaporation / 30
2.1.4. Nonvacuum Processes / 30
2.1.4.1. Organometallic Solutions / 30
2.1.4.2. Electropplating Solus / 31
2.1.5. Process Conditions / 31
2.1.6. Coating Time / 32
2.2. Coating Parameters / 33
2.2.1. Source Characteristics / 33
2.2.1.1. Compositional Variations / 33
2.2.1.2. Stoichiometry / 33
2.2.1.3. Coating Distribution / 34
2.2.2. Deposition Environment / 34
2.2.3. Nucleation and Growth / 35
2.2.4. Rate and Thickness Monitoring / 35
2.2.4.1. Crystal Oscillator / 35
2.2.4.2. Optical Techniques / 36
2.2.4.3. Atomic Emission Techniques / 38
2.2.5. Sticking Coefficient / 38
2.3. Coating Equipment / 39
2.3.1. Size of Coating Chamber / 39
2.3.2. Chamber Geometry and Process Considerations / 40
2.3.2.1. Surface to Volume Ratio / 40
2.3.2.2. Thickness Uniformity and Coating Efficiency / 41
2.3.3. Substrate Rotation for Coating Uniformity / 43
2.3.4. Jigging and Substrate Support / 43
2.3.5. Temperature Related Substrate Degradation / 44
2.4. Stress Effects / 45
2.5. Substrate Cleaning / 48
2.5.1. Contacting Cleaning / 49
2.5.2. Ultrasonic Cleaning / 50
2.5.3. High Pressure Sprays / 50
2.5.4. Drying / 50
2.5.5. In Situ Processes / 52
3 PERFORMANCE OF OPTICAL FILTERS / 53
3.1 Reflectance, Transmittance, and Absorption / 53
3.2. Absorption and Scattering / 54
3.3. Blocking Ranges / 56
3.4. Filters in Series: Incoherent Addition of Intensities / 60
3.5. Standing Wave Electric Fields / 63
3.6. Performance Shifts with Angle of Incidence / 68
3.7. Other Parameters that Affect Performance / 71
3.7.1. Water and Humidity / 71
3.7.2. Temperature / 73
3.7.3. Corrosion / 75
3.8. Wavefront Distortions / 75
4 DESIGNS TYPES / 78
4.1. Antireflection Coatings / 78
4.1.1. Single-Layer Designs / 82
4.1.2. Narrow-Band AR Designs / 83
4.1.3. Wide-Band AR Coatings / 85
4.1.4. Superwide Infrared AR Coatings / 86
4.2. High Reflection Designs / 86
4.2.1. Metallic Reflectors / 86
4.2.2. All Dielectric Designs / 91
4.2.2.1. Nonsymmetric Stacks / 91
4.2.2.2. Symmetric Designs / 95
4.2.3. Enhanced Metallic Reflectors / 96
4.3. Edge Filters / 99
4.4. Bandpass Filters / 103
4.4.1. Two Edge Filters in Series / 103
4.4.2. Fabry-Perot Filter / 104
4.4.2.1. Fabry-Perot Filter / 105
4.4.2.2. Solid Fabry-Perot Filters / 107
4.4.3. Narrow-Band Dielectric Filters / 108
4.4.4. Circular and Linear Variable Filters / 110
4.4.5. Reflex or Phase Conjugate Filter / 112
4.5. Beam Splitters / 115
4.5.1. Wide-Band or Neutral Density Beam Splitters / 115
4.5.1.1. Slab Beam Splitter / 116
4.5.1.2. Cube Beam Splitters / 121
4.5.2. Dichroic and Trichroic Filters / 121
4.5.3. Filters for Use in Harmonic Generation Experiments / 123
4.6. Other Filters / 126
4.6.1. Dark Mirrors, Selective Absorbers, and Induced Absorbers / 126
4.6.2. Solar Absorbers / 129
4.6.3. Notch Filters / 130
4.6.4. Transparent Conductive Coatings / 130
4.6.5. Patterned Dieleectric Coatings / 132
4.6.6. Coatings for High-Power Laser Beam Reflectors / 133
4.6.7. Color Correction Coatings / 134
4.6.8. Switching Filters / 134
4.6.9. Emissivity Control / 135
4.6.9.1. Emissivity Reducing Coating / 135
4.6.9.2. Emissivity Enhancing Coatings / 135
5 FILTER PERFORMANCE AND MEASUREMENTS / 139
5.1. Spectophotometers and Spectrophotometry / 139
5.1.1. Reflectance Measurements / 141
5.1.1.1. Single-Beam Spectrophotometers / 141
5.1.1.2. Double-Beam Spectrophotometers / 141
5.1.2. Beam Offset / 145
5.1.3. Extra Surface Effects / 145
5.1.4. Effect of the Refractive Index of the Incident Medium / 147
5.1.5. Polarization / 148
5.1.6. Measurement Cone / 149
5.1.7. Nonspecular Samples / 151
5.1.8. Nonplanar Surfaces / 152
5.1.9. Sample Heating / 153
5.1.10. Measuring Absorption by Calorimetry / 153
5.1.11. Colorimetry / 155
5.2. Environmental Performance and Measurements / 158
5.2.1. Use of Witnesses in Environmental Testing / 159
5.2.2. Adhesion Testing with Self-Adhesive Tape / 160
5.2.3. Abrasion Testing / 160
5.2.3.1. Cheesecloth Test / 161
5.2.3.2. Eraser Test / 161
5.2.4. Humidity Exposure / 161
5.2.4.1. Humidity Testing / 162
5.2.4.2. Solubility Testing / 162
5.2.5. Salt Fog Exposure / 162
5.2.6. Other Tests / 162
5.2.6.1. Visual Inspections / 163
5.2.6.2. Falling Sand Test / 163
5.2.6.3. Other Adhesive Tests / 163
5.2.6.4. Combined Adhesion and Abrasion / 164
5.2.6.5. Combined Temperature, Humidity, and UV Light / 164
5.2.7. Cycled Temperature Testing / 165
5.2.8. Combined (Sequential) Testing / 165
5.2.9. When to Test / 165
5.2.10. Formal Specifications / 166
5.3. Aging / 167
5.3.1. Shelf Life / 167
5.3.2. Material Interactions and Interdiffusion / 168
5.3.2.1. Oxidation and Reduction / 168
5.3.2.2. Agglomeration / 169
5.3.2.3. Interdiffusion / 169
5.3.3. Biological Effects / 170
5.4. Cosmetic and Other Visual Deficiencies / 170
5.4.1. Sleeks, DIgs, and Scratches / 170
5.4.2. Blotches and Stains / 171
5.4.3. Replication of Substrate Defects / 171
5.4.3.1. High Reflectors with Opaque Metal Layer / 171
5.4.3.2. Low Reflectance Surfaces / 171
5.4.4. Coating Voids and Other Defects / 172
5.4.5. Cleaning Coated Parts / 173
5.4.5.1. Hard Substrates--Hard Coatings / 174
5.4.5.2. Hard Coatings on Soft Substrates, and Soft Coatings / 175
5.4.6. Coating Thickness Uniformity / 176
5.4.7. Microscopic Examination / 178
5.5. Inspection Lot Size / 181
6 SUBSTRATES AND MATERIALS / 182
6.1. Substrates in General / 182
6.2. Substrate Types / 185
6.2.1. Glasses / 185
6.2.2. Plastics and Organic Substrates / 188
6.2.3. Metals / 189
6.3. Safety Glass / 190
6.3.1. Lamination / 190
6.3.2. Tempering / 190
6.4. Substrate Specifications / 191
6.5. Blocking Properties / 192
6.6. Reststrahl Bands / 193
6.7. Island Formation in Thin Films / 194
6.8. Thermal Runaway in Semiconductors / 195
6.9. Number of Materials in Multilayer Coatings / 195
6.10. Toxicity / 196
7 FUTURE PROSPECTS / 197
7.1. Ion Beams / 197
7.2. Nonvacuum Processes / 199
7.3. Inhomogeneous Films / 200
7.4. Codeposition / 200
7.5. X-Ray Coatings / 201
7.6. Equipment Advances--Automatic Coating Machines / 202
7.7. Materials Research / 203
A HOW TO SPECIFY OPTICAL FILTERS / 207
B SELECTED UNITED STATES MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS THAT RELATE TO THIN FILM OPTICAL FILTERS / 210
C BASIC PROGRAM TO CALCULATE THIN FILM FILTER PERFORMANCE / 271
REFERENCES / 281
INDEX / 287

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