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Spie Press Book

Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, Second Edition
Author(s): John C. Stover
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Book Description

As the authoritative resource on optical scattering, this book was developed from many years of teaching light-scatter measurement and analysis courses to optical engineers. Dr. Stover covers scattering beginning with its basics and covering surface roughness calculations, measurements, instrumentation, predictions, specifications, and industrial applications.

Also included are appendices that review the basics of wave propagation and Kirchhoff diffraction.

Whether you're an optical engineer currently investigating roughness-induced haze in the semiconductor industry, or just entering the field of scatter metrology, this text will be invaluable.

Softcover version of PM24.


Book Details

Date Published: 1 July 1995
Pages: 334
Volume: PM24

Table of Contents
SHOW Table of Contents | HIDE Table of Contents
About the Second Edition / ix
Preface / xi
Acknowledgments / xiii
Chapter 1. Introduction to Light Scatter / 3
1.1 The Scattering of Light / 4
1.2 Scatter from a Smooth Sinusoidal Surface / 5
1.3 Scatter from Other Surfaces / 12
1.4 Scatter from Windows and Particulates / 15
1.5 Bidirectional Scatter Distribution Functions / 19
1.6 Total Integrated Scatter / 22
1.7 Summary / 26
Chapter 2. Surface Roughness / 29
2.1 Profile Characterization / 29
2.2 The Surface Power Spectral Density and Autocovariance Functions / 44
2.3 Summary / 57
Chapter 3. Scatter Calculations and Diffraction Theory / 59
3.1 Overview / 59
3.2 Kirchhoff Diffraction Theory / 66
3.3 The Rayleigh Approach / 77
3.4 Comparison of Vector and Scalar Results / 81
3.5 Summary / 83
Chapter 4. Calculation of Smooth-Surface Statistics from the BRDF / 85
4.1 Practical Application of the Rayleigh-Rice Perturbation Theory / 85
4.2 Roughness Statistics of Isotropic Surfaces / 91
4.3 Roughness Statistics of One-Dimensional Surfaces / 95
4.4 Roughness Statistics for the General Case / 103
4.5 The K-Correlation Surface Power Spectrum Models / 103
4.6 The TIS Derivation from the Rayleigh-Rice Perturbation Theory / 107
4.7 Summary / 109
Chapter 5. Polarization of Scattered Light / 111
5.1 A Review of Polarization Concepts / 112
5.2 The Polarization Factor Q / 121
5.3 Scattering Vectors and Matrices / 126
5.4 Summary / 132
Chapter 6. Scatter Measurements and Instrumentation / 133
6.1 Scatterometer Components / 133
6.2 Instrument Signature / 137
6.3 Aperture Effects on the Measured BSDF / 139
6.4 Signature Reduction and Near-Specular Measurements / 143
6.5 The Noise-Equivalent BSDF / 152
6.6 Measurement of Pi and Instrument Calibration / 155
6.7 Measurement of Curved Optics / 157
6.8 Coordinate Systems and Out-of-Plane Measurements / 158
6.9 Raster Scans / 161
6.10 Measurement of Retroreflection / 164
6.11 Alternate TIS Devices / 169
6.12 Error Analysis of the Measured BSDF / 170
6.13 Summary / 174
Chapter 7. Scatter Predictions / 177
7.1 Optical Surfaces: Using the Rayleigh-Rice Equation / 178
7.2 Rough Surfaces / 188
7.3 Partial Data Sets / 197
7.4 Scatter from Diffuse Samples / 200
7.5 BRDF Standard Surfaces / 206
7.6 Software for Prediction of Scatter in Optical Systems / 208
7.7 Summary / 209
Chapter 8. Detection of Discrete Surface and Subsurface Defects / 211
8.1 Polarization Effects Associated with Defect Scatter / 212
8.2 Bulk Defects in Transparent Optics / 220
8.3 Near-Point-Scatter Sources and Differential-Scattering Cross Section / 225
8.4 Nontopographic Defects in Opaque Materials / 229
8.5 Summary / 230
Chapter 9. Industrial Applications / 231
9.1 Semiconductor Applications / 232
9.2 Computer Disks / 241
9.3 Contamination Measurement by Wavelength Discrimination / 245
9.4 General Manufacturing Examples / 246
9.5 Summary / 252
Chapter 10. Scatter Specifications / 253
10.1 Generic Specifications / 254
10.2 Calculation of Specifications for Several Examples / 256
10.3 Summary / 273
Appendix A. Review of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation / 275
A.1 The Wave Equation / 275
A.2 Electromagnetic Plane Waves in Free Space / 276
A.3 Plane Waves in a Dielectric / 281
A.4 Plane Waves in a Conducting Medium / 283
Appendix B. Kirchhoff Diffraction from Sinusoidal Gratings / 287
Appendix C. BSDF Data / 295
Bibliography / 303
Index / 318

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