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Spie Press Book

Soft X-Ray Optics
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Book Description

This text describes optics mainly in the 10 to 500 angstrom wavelength region. These wavelengths are 50 to 100 times shorter than those for visible light and 50 to 100 times longer than the wavelengths of medical x rays or x-ray diffraction from natural crystals. There have been substantial advances during the last 20 years, which one can see as an extension of optical technology to shorter wavelengths or as an extension of x-ray diffraction to longer wavelengths. Artificial diffracting structures like zone plates and multilayer mirrors are replacing the natural crystals of x-ray diffraction. Some of these structures can now be fabricated to have diffraction-limited resolution. The new possibilities are described in a simple, tutorial way.

Book Details

Date Published: 10 August 1994
Pages: 290
ISBN: 9780819416544
Volume: PM15

Table of Contents
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Preface ix
1. Introduction / 1
1.1 References / 4
2. Optical Constants / 5
2.1 Refractive index of a free electron gas / 7
2.2 Data for optical constants / 11
2.3 Neutron optics / 19
2.4 References / 21
3. Reflection from a Single Boundary / 23
3.1 Fresnel equations / 23
3.2 The standing wave generated by a reflector / 31
3.3 Waveguides and whispering gallery mirrors / 32
3.4 A simplified description of reflection / 35
3.5 References / 38
4. Imaging Systems for X Rays / 39
4.1 Reflecting imaging elements with amplitude addition / 39
4.2 Reflecting imaging elements with intensity addition / 41
4.3 Image field for reflectors / 44
4.3.1 Stepped mirrors / 54
4.4 X-ray lenses / 55
4.5 References / 57
5. Information Capacity of a Radiation Field / 59
5.1 Modes, coherence conditions, uncertainty relations / 60
5.2 Contrast of interference fringes / 62
5.3 Intensity fluctuations / 63
5.4 Photon statistics / 67
5.5 Image reconstruction in three dimensions / 73
5.6 Image reconstruction in two dimensions / 77
5.7 References / 79
6. Zone Plates / 81
6.1 Zone plate geometry / 81
6.2 Wavelength tuning of zone plates / 86
6.3 Zone plate efficiency / 88
6.4 Zone plate fabrication / 89
6.4.1 Electron beam writing of zone plates / 91
6.4.2 Holographic fabrication of zone plates / 93
6.4.3 Sliced zone plates / 95
6.5 Generalized zone plate structures / 96
6.6 References 97
7. Interference in Thin Films: Theory / 101
7.1 Rigorous theories / 102
7.2 Kinematical theory (vector model) and Fourier transforms / 108
7.3 Imperfect boundaries / 110
7.3.1 Reflectivity reduction / 110
7.3.2 Diffuse scattering / 116
7.4 Superlattices / 123
7.4.1 Reflection from tilted planes / 130
7.5 Computer programs / 132
7.6 References / 135
8. Design of Multilayer Structures / 139
8.1 Standing waves in a coating / 140
8.2 High-reflectivity mirrors / 145
8.2.1 Mirrors with increased bandwidth / 154
8.3 Fabry-Perot resonators and waveguide modes / 156
8.4 Beamsplitters and polarizers / 161
8.5 Multilayer coatings for neutrons / 164
8.6 References / 165
9. Multilayer Fabrication / 169
9.1 Deposition methods / 169
9.2 Material selection / 173
9.3 Performance of multilayer systems / 175
9.3.1 Wavelength region l < 23 / 178
9.3.2 Wavelength region l = 23-44 / 179
9.3.3 Wavelength region l = 45-130 / 180
9.3.4 Wavelength region l = 130-350 / 183
9.3.5 Wavelength region l > 350 / 184
9.4 Substrates / 185
9.5 References / 187
10. Test of Multilayer Structures / 193
10.1 In-situ monitoring / 194
10.2 Soft x-ray reflectivity / 197
10.3 Hard x-ray reflectivity / 199
10.3.1 Analysis of reflectivity curves / 201
10.3.2 Statistical treatment of thickness errors / 203
10.3.3 Rough boundaries and intermixing / 206
10.4 Scattering / 208
10.4.1 Scattering data / 208
10.4.2 Qualitative discussion of diffuse scattering / 212
10.4.3 Quantitative analysis of scattering / 215
10.4.4 A simple model for thin film growth / 216
10.5 Characterization by microscopy / 221
10.6 References / 224
11. Windows and Filters / 229
11.1 References / 233
12. Applications of Soft X-Ray Optics / 235
12.1 Spectroscopy / 235
12.2 Multilayer gratings / 238
12.3 High-resolution imaging / 242
12.4 Astronomy / 246
12.5 X-ray microscopy / 250
12.6 X-ray lithography / 255
12.7 References / 259
13. Appendix / 267
13.1 Conferences / 267
13.2 Optical constants of elements for l = 1.54 / 269
13.3 Example for the analysis of reflectivity curves / 271
13.4 References / 274
Index / 275

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