This course provides a review of general theory and operation for CCD and CMOS imaging technologies looking at the development and application statuses of both. Performance differences between CMOS and CCD imaging arrays are covered. Fundamental performance limits behind major sensor operations are presented in addition to image defects, shorts, device yield, popular chip foundries, chip cost; custom designed and off-the-shelf sensors. We discuss operation principles behind popular commercial and scientific CMOS pixel architectures, and various array readout schemes. We cover backside illuminated arrays for UV, EUV and x-ray applications; high QE frontside illuminated sensors; deep depletion CCDs, ultra large CMOS and CCD arrays; high speed/ low noise parallel readout sensors. We describe the photon transfer technique in measuring performance and calibrating camera and chip systems, and charge transfer mechanisms. We review correlated double sampling theory used to achieve low noise performance and conclude with a look at future research and development trends for each technology.
- describe operating CMOS and CCD arrays and camera systems for commercial and scientific imaging applications
- explain how CCD and CMOS arrays are designed, fabricated, tested and calibrated
- know how to apply test methodologies and performance standards
- list specifications and requirements to select a sensor for your imaging application
- recognize performance differences between CMOS and CCD technologies
- describe how video signals are processed for optimum signal-to-noise performance
- become familiar with current and future imaging technologies and applications